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Gene Review

glyV  -  tRNA

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK4159, JWR0112, glyValpha, ins, suA58, ...
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Disease relevance of glyV

  • In Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, a circular form of the clc element, which carries an 18-bp DNA sequence identical to the 3'-end portion of glyV as part of its attachment site (attP), could be detected [1].
  • Two transversion-specific mutator loci, mutA and mutC, were identified in Escherichia coli [2].
  • Here, we demonstrate that mutA cells express an error-prone DNA polymerase by using an in vitro experimental system based on the conversion of phage M13 single-stranded viral DNA bearing a model mutagenic lesion to the double-stranded replicative form [3].

High impact information on glyV

  • The ins and outs of GroEL-mediated protein folding [4].
  • Mutator tRNAs are encoded by the Escherichia coli mutator genes mutA and mutC: a novel pathway for mutagenesis [5].
  • Both its mutagenic specificity and complementation experiments confirmed that mutA is distinct from mutL and from a nearby mutator locus, miaA [2].
  • The specificity of reversion of lacZ mutations in a mutC strain is identical to that in a mutA strain [2].
  • The phenotype of a mutA mutL double mutator strain suggests that the mutA gene product prevents some replication errors [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of glyV


Biological context of glyV

  • Upon chromosomal integration of the clc element into a bacterial attachment site (attB), a functional glyV was reconstructed at the right end of the element [1].
  • The element integrates site and orientation specifically into the chromosomes of various bacterial recipients, with a glycine tRNA structural gene (glyV) as the integration site [1].
  • Neither overexpression of the lexA gene through a multicopy plasmid nor replacement of the wild-type lexA allele with the lexA1[Ind-] allele interferes with the expression of the mutA phenotype [8].
  • Escherichia coli cells bearing mutA, a mutant glyV tRNA gene, express a recA-dependent error-prone DNA replication activity [3].
  • Thus, the recBCD-dependent homologous recombination system is a component of the signal pathway that activates an error-prone DNA polymerase in mutA cells [9].

Associations of glyV with chemical compounds

  • By purifying DNA polymerase III* from TSM-induced and control cells, and by testing its fidelity on templates bearing 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (a mutagenic DNA lesion), as well as on undamaged DNA templates, we show here that polymerase III* purified from mutA cells is error-prone as compared with that from control cells [7].
  • The mutA allele differs from the wild type glyV gene by a base substitution in the anticodon such that the resulting tRNA misreads certain aspartate codons as glycine, resulting in random, low-level Asp-->Gly substitutions in proteins [10].

Other interactions of glyV

  • The mutA locus maps very near to, but is separable from, mutL, at about 95 min on the E. coli chromosome [2].
  • Finally, we show that the mutA phenotype is abolished in cells deficient for recB, suggesting that cellular recombination functions may be required for the expression of the mutator phenotype [8].
  • Also, the behavior of a mutC mutS double mutant is identical to that of a mutA mutL double mutant [2].
  • Our results also indicate that mutA deltarecA double mutants display a normal UVM phenotype, suggesting that the mutA effect is recA dependent [6].
  • The mutA phenotype does not require lexA-regulated SOS mutagenesis functions, and appears to be suppressed in cells defective for RecABC-dependent homologous recombination functions [11].


  1. Int-B13, an unusual site-specific recombinase of the bacteriophage P4 integrase family, is responsible for chromosomal insertion of the 105-kilobase clc element of Pseudomonas sp. Strain B13. Ravatn, R., Studer, S., Zehnder, A.J., van der Meer, J.R. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. mutA and mutC: two mutator loci in Escherichia coli that stimulate transversions. Michaels, M.L., Cruz, C., Miller, J.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Escherichia coli cells bearing mutA, a mutant glyV tRNA gene, express a recA-dependent error-prone DNA replication activity. Al Mamun, A.A., Rahman, M.S., Humayun, M.Z. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The ins and outs of GroEL-mediated protein folding. Weissman, J.S. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutator tRNAs are encoded by the Escherichia coli mutator genes mutA and mutC: a novel pathway for mutagenesis. Slupska, M.M., Baikalov, C., Lloyd, R., Miller, J.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Escherichia coli cells expressing a mutant glyV (glycine tRNA) gene have a UVM-constitutive phenotype: implications for mechanisms underlying the mutA or mutC mutator effect. Murphy, H.S., Humayun, M.Z. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. DNA polymerase III from Escherichia coli cells expressing mutA mistranslator tRNA is error-prone. Al Mamun, A.A., Marians, K.J., Humayun, M.Z. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The mutA mistranslator tRNA-induced mutator phenotype requires recA and recB genes, but not the derepression of lexA-regulated functions. Ren, L., Al Mamun, A.A., Humayun, M.Z. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Requirement for homologous recombination functions for expression of the mutA mistranslator tRNA-induced mutator phenotype in Escherichia coli. Ren, L., Mamun, A.A., Humayun, M.Z. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Specificity of spontaneous mutations induced in mutA mutator cells. Balashov, S., Humayun, M.Z. Mutat. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Mistranslation induced by streptomycin provokes a RecABC/RuvABC-dependent mutator phenotype in Escherichia coli cells. Balashov, S., Humayun, M.Z. J. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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