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Gene Review

UBC9  -  E2 SUMO-conjugating protein UBC9

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9, Ubiquitin carrier protein 9, Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-18 kDa, Ubiquitin-protein ligase, YDL064W
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Disease relevance of UBC9


High impact information on UBC9

  • Loss of cohesion at the metaphase to anaphase transition is accompanied by Scc1p's dissociation from chromatids, which depends on proteolysis of Pds1p mediated by a ubiquitin protein ligase called the anaphase promoting complex (APC) [3].
  • Repression of UBC9 synthesis prevents cell cycle progression at the G2 or early M phase, causing the accumulation of large budded cells with a single nucleus, a short spindle and replicated DNA [4].
  • Here we show that B-type-cyclin degradation in yeast involves an essential nuclear ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UBC9 [4].
  • Such a high degree of similarity between the human E2(Mr = 17,000) and the yeast DNA repair enzyme is suggestive of important common structural constraints or roles in addition to ubiquitin carrier activity, since in yeast this function itself is not necessarily dependent on high conservation of primary structure [5].
  • The pointed domain is necessary for homotypic dimerization and for interaction with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC9 [6].

Biological context of UBC9


Anatomical context of UBC9

  • In mouse spermatocytes, MmUbc9 protein, like Rad51 protein, localizes in synaptonemal complexes, which suggests that Ubc9 protein plays a regulatory role in meiosis [12].
  • Western blot analysis was used to probe the relationships between the multiple ubiquitin carrier proteins (E2 s) of rabbit reticulocytes and the 20-kDa E2 encoded by the RAD6 gene of the yeast S. cerevisiae [13].
  • Fractionation of a testis extract by anion-exchange chromatography identified several putative ubiquitin protein ligase activities with which this E2 could interact in promoting conjugation of ubiquitin to proteins [14].
  • The T-box factor TBX-2 and the SUMO conjugating enzyme UBC-9 are required for ABa-derived pharyngeal muscle in C. elegans [15].

Associations of UBC9 with chemical compounds

  • The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) can be conjugated to lysine residues directly by the ubiquitin-conjugating protein Ubc9 [16].
  • A Saccharomyces cerevisiae ubc9 temperature sensitive (ts) mutant showed higher sensitivity to various DNA damaging agents such as methylmethanesulfonate (MMS) and UV at a semi-permissive temperature than wild-type cells [17].
  • Substitution of the conserved cysteine residue of Ubc9 by serine abolished the formation of the Ubc9-sentrin conjugate [18].
  • A promoter mutation that reduces expression of RSP5/NPI1, a postulated ubiquitin-protein ligase, dramatically reduces the rate of glucose-induced proteolysis of maltose permease [19].
  • In the present work, we find that Ubc9 interacts with the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the steroid receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors [20].

Physical interactions of UBC9

  • Moreover, recombinant yeast and mammalian UBC9 enzymes were found to form thioester complexes with SMT3 and SUMO-1, respectively [21].

Other interactions of UBC9

  • The role of yeast UBC9 in cell cycle progression may thus be mediated through its SMT3 conjugation activity [21].
  • Here we report that tah mutant ubc9-10 harbors a hypomorphic allele of UBC9, which encodes the essential SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) E2-conjugating enzyme [22].
  • We show that cells depleted of Ubc9 or Smt3, the yeast SUMO protein, mostly arrested with undivided nuclei and with high levels of securin Pds1 [23].
  • Moreover, the E2s Ubc9 and Ubc13 were linked to the NEF4 repair pathway by genetic criteria [24].


  1. Interaction between a geminivirus replication protein and the plant sumoylation system. Castillo, A.G., Kong, L.J., Hanley-Bowdoin, L., Bejarano, E.R. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Interaction of moloney murine leukemia virus capsid with Ubc9 and PIASy mediates SUMO-1 addition required early in infection. Yueh, A., Leung, J., Bhattacharyya, S., Perrone, L.A., de los Santos, K., Pu, S.Y., Goff, S.P. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. An ESP1/PDS1 complex regulates loss of sister chromatid cohesion at the metaphase to anaphase transition in yeast. Ciosk, R., Zachariae, W., Michaelis, C., Shevchenko, A., Mann, M., Nasmyth, K. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in degradation of S- and M-phase cyclins. Seufert, W., Futcher, B., Jentsch, S. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. The human ubiquitin carrier protein E2(Mr = 17,000) is homologous to the yeast DNA repair gene RAD6. Schneider, R., Eckerskorn, C., Lottspeich, F., Schweiger, M. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Posttranslational modification of TEL and TEL/AML1 by SUMO-1 and cell-cycle-dependent assembly into nuclear bodies. Chakrabarti, S.R., Sood, R., Nandi, S., Nucifora, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. A yeast Ubc9 mutant protein with temperature-sensitive in vivo function is subject to conditional proteolysis by a ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent pathway. Betting, J., Seufert, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Associations of UBE2I with RAD52, UBL1, p53, and RAD51 proteins in a yeast two-hybrid system. Shen, Z., Pardington-Purtymun, P.E., Comeaux, J.C., Moyzis, R.K., Chen, D.J. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Two-hybrid interaction of a human UBC9 homolog with centromere proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Jiang, W., Koltin, Y. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification and characterization of a Drosophila homologue of the yeast UBC9 and hus5 genes. Ohsako, S., Takamatsu, Y. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. The mUBC9 murine ubiquitin conjugating enzyme interacts with the E2A transcription factors. Loveys, D.A., Streiff, M.B., Schaefer, T.S., Kato, G.J. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Mammalian ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 interacts with Rad51 recombination protein and localizes in synaptonemal complexes. Kovalenko, O.V., Plug, A.W., Haaf, T., Gonda, D.K., Ashley, T., Ward, D.C., Radding, C.M., Golub, E.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Several mammalian ubiquitin carrier proteins, but not E2(20K), are related to the 20-kDa yeast E2, RAD6. Berleth, E.S., Pickart, C.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a ubiquitin conjugation enzyme (E2(17)kB) highly expressed in rat testis. Wing, S.S., Jain, P. Biochem. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. The T-box factor TBX-2 and the SUMO conjugating enzyme UBC-9 are required for ABa-derived pharyngeal muscle in C. elegans. Roy Chowdhuri, S., Crum, T., Woollard, A., Aslam, S., Okkema, P.G. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Purification and activity assays for Ubc9, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme for the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO. Yunus, A.A., Lima, C.D. Meth. Enzymol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Ubc9 is required for damage-tolerance and damage-induced interchromosomal homologous recombination in S. cerevisiae. Maeda, D., Seki, M., Onoda, F., Branzei, D., Kawabe, Y., Enomoto, T. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Preferential interaction of sentrin with a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, Ubc9. Gong, L., Kamitani, T., Fujise, K., Caskey, L.S., Yeh, E.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. The role of ubiquitin conjugation in glucose-induced proteolysis of Saccharomyces maltose permease. Medintz, I., Jiang, H., Michels, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Ubc9 interacts with the androgen receptor and activates receptor-dependent transcription. Poukka, H., Aarnisalo, P., Karvonen, U., Palvimo, J.J., Jänne, O.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. The ubiquitin-like proteins SMT3 and SUMO-1 are conjugated by the UBC9 E2 enzyme. Schwarz, S.E., Matuschewski, K., Liakopoulos, D., Scheffner, M., Jentsch, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Defects in SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) conjugation and deconjugation alter cell sensitivity to DNA topoisomerase I-induced DNA damage. Jacquiau, H.R., van Waardenburg, R.C., Reid, R.J., Woo, M.H., Guo, H., Johnson, E.S., Bjornsti, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Smt3/SUMO and Ubc9 are required for efficient APC/C-mediated proteolysis in budding yeast. Dieckhoff, P., Bolte, M., Sancak, Y., Braus, G.H., Irniger, S. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. The NEF4 complex regulates Rad4 levels and utilizes Snf2/Swi2-related ATPase activity for nucleotide excision repair. Ramsey, K.L., Smith, J.J., Dasgupta, A., Maqani, N., Grant, P., Auble, D.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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