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Disease relevance of Smallpox


High impact information on Smallpox

  • Infection of monkey kidney BSC-40 and VERO-E6 cells in vitro by variola strain Solaimen is blocked by CI-1033, primarily at the level of secondary viral spreading [6].
  • This finding may allow the design of a class of antiviral agents, including agents against variola (smallpox), which has an almost identical E3L [7].
  • Treatment of variola major with cytosine arabinoside [8].
  • Treatment of variola major with adenine arabinoside [9].
  • Because p13 can bind both human and murine IL-18, and because it is highly homologous to the variola virus IL-18BP, we set out to identify residues that may be involved in species specificity [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Smallpox


Gene context of Smallpox

  • The aim of this study was to demonstrate IL-18 binding activity of the Variola virus protein D7L [13].
  • The second variola protein is the variola virus high-affinity secreted chemokine-binding protein type II (CKBP-II, CBP-II, vCCI), which binds CC-chemokine receptors [14].
  • Comparison of the variola virus (VAR) and vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen (COP) sequences show that the main differences are between proteins L1R and I5R [15].
  • Possibly variola virus has discriminated the Delta 32 carriers in Europe since the eighth century AD, explaining the high frequency of the Delta 32 allele in Europe today [16].
  • Two major differences in the amino acid composition of the variola virus TK were identified that might play a role in alteration of its kinetic properties [5].


  1. Cidofovir in the therapy and short-term prophylaxis of poxvirus infections. De Clercq, E. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus. Alejo, A., Ruiz-Argüello, M.B., Ho, Y., Smith, V.P., Saraiva, M., Alcami, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. The poxvirus p28 virulence factor is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Huang, J., Huang, Q., Zhou, X., Shen, M.M., Yen, A., Yu, S.X., Dong, G., Qu, K., Huang, P., Anderson, E.M., Daniel-Issakani, S., Buller, R.M., Payan, D.G., Lu, H.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Myxoma virus and Shope fibroma virus encode dual-specificity tyrosine/serine phosphatases which are essential for virus viability. Mossman, K., Ostergaard, H., Upton, C., McFadden, G. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene region of monkeypox and variola viruses. Esposito, J.J., Knight, J.C. Virology (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Antiviral chemotherapy facilitates control of poxvirus infections through inhibition of cellular signal transduction. Yang, H., Kim, S.K., Kim, M., Reche, P.A., Morehead, T.J., Damon, I.K., Welsh, R.M., Reinherz, E.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. A role for Z-DNA binding in vaccinia virus pathogenesis. Kim, Y.G., Muralinath, M., Brandt, T., Pearcy, M., Hauns, K., Lowenhaupt, K., Jacobs, B.L., Rich, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Treatment of variola major with cytosine arabinoside. Monsur, K.A., Hossain, M.S., Huq, F., Rahaman, M.M., Haque, M.Q. J. Infect. Dis. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment of variola major with adenine arabinoside. Koplan, J.P., Monsur, K.A., Foster, S.O., Huq, F., Rahaman, M.M., Huq, S., Buchanan, R.A., Ward, N.A. J. Infect. Dis. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of residues in an orthopoxvirus interleukin-18 binding protein involved in ligand binding and species specificity. Esteban, D.J., Buller, R.M. Virology (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Variola minor in Bragança Paulista county, 1956. Attack rates in various population units of the two schools including most students with the disease. Klauber, M.R., Angulo, J.J. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Biological activities of isatin and its derivatives. Pandeya, S.N., Smitha, S., Jyoti, M., Sridhar, S.K. Acta pharmaceutica (Zagreb, Croatia) (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Interleukin-18 and glycosaminoglycan binding by a protein encoded by Variola virus. Esteban, D.J., Nuara, A.A., Buller, R.M. J. Gen. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Variola virus immune evasion proteins. Dunlop, L.R., Oehlberg, K.A., Reid, J.J., Avci, D., Rosengard, A.M. Microbes Infect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Nucleotide sequence analysis of variola virus HindIII M, L, I genome fragments. Shchelkunov, S.N., Blinov, V.M., Totmenin, A.V., Marennikova, S.S., Kolykhalov, A.A., Frolov, I.V., Chizhikov, V.E., Gytorov, V.V., Gashikov, P.V., Belanov, E.F. Virus Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Frequencies of 32 base pair deletion of the (Delta 32) allele of the CCR5 HIV-1 co-receptor gene in Caucasians: a comparative analysis. Lucotte, G. Infect. Genet. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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