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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
MeSH Review

Antlers

 
 
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Disease relevance of Antlers

  • In the rut, superior bucks (with actual or potential large body weight, trophy antlers and a high social rank) responded to Gn-RH with a small increase of LH (below 20 micrograms/ml) and a profound rise in testosterone (T) (30-50 ng/ml) [1].
 

High impact information on Antlers

 

Chemical compound and disease context of Antlers

 

Biological context of Antlers

 

Anatomical context of Antlers

  • The hardening of the antlers in the ovariectomized animals in autumn was correlated with seasonal increases in the plasma concentrations of androstenedione, but not in the concentrations of other steroid hormones; provocation tests using GnRH and arginine vasopressin (AVP) illustrated that the adrenal gland was a likely source of androgens [9].
  • Fluoride in mandibles and antlers of roe and red deer from different areas of England and Scotland [10].
 

Associations of Antlers with chemical compounds

  • Regional distribution of estradiol receptors in growing antlers [11].
  • The removal of the steroid implant in October-November caused the premature casting of the antlers in early winter in two of five animals, while the remainder cast at the normal time in spring; this response was seen whether the animals had received one or two oestradiol implants in autumn [12].
  • In addition, an unanticipated elevation of serum keratan sulfate was observed in early spring prior to casting of the preceding year's antlers and the initiation of regrowth [13].
  • Temporal variation of fluoride concentration in antlers of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) living in an area exposed to emissions from iron and steel industry, 1948-2000 [14].
  • The relationship between serum androgen concentrations and relative density changes in the antlers and long bones of male deer was determined [15].
 

Gene context of Antlers

  • Increasing PTH levels are related to final mineralization of antlers post-velvet shedding [16].
  • These results demonstrate the presence of ER in growing antlers and indicate regional localization of the receptors within these structures [11].
  • Fecal samples, behavioral data and information concerning male grouping and antlers status were collected at a monthly basis during a 1 year period from free-ranging stags living at Emas National Park, Brazil (18 degrees S/52 degrees W) [17].
  • In February/March velvet was shed from the antlers, indicating a rise in plasma androgen levels at that time [18].
  • The antlers reached about 5 cm in length, before ceasing to grow at the end of April, when they became mineralized and were subsequently polished [19].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Antlers

References

  1. Assessment of the sexual and antler potential of the male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by Gn-RH stimulation test. Bubenik, G.A., Schams, D., Sempere, A.J. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. A role for retinoic acid in regulating the regeneration of deer antlers. Allen, S.P., Maden, M., Price, J.S. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Deer antlers as a model of Mammalian regeneration. Price, J., Faucheux, C., Allen, S. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Elevated plasma IGF 1 levels in stags prevented from growing antlers. Suttie, J.M., Fennessy, P.F., Gluckman, P.D., Corson, I.D. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Recapitulation of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide-Indian hedgehog pathway in the regenerating deer antler. Faucheux, C., Nicholls, B.M., Allen, S., Danks, J.A., Horton, M.A., Price, J.S. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Exploring the mechanisms regulating regeneration of deer antlers. Price, J., Allen, S. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparison of analgesic techniques for antler removal in wapiti. Woodbury, M.R., Caulkett, N.A., Baumann, D., Read, M.R. Can. Vet. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Roe deer antlers as monitoring units for assessing temporal changes in environmental pollution by fluoride and lead in a German forest area over a 67-year period. Kierdorf, H., Kierdorf, U. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of gonadal hormones in the regulation of the seasonal antler cycle in female reindeer, Rangifer tarandus. Lincoln, G.A., Tyler, N.J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Fluoride in mandibles and antlers of roe and red deer from different areas of England and Scotland. Walton, K.C., Ackroyd, S. Environ. Pollut. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Regional distribution of estradiol receptors in growing antlers. Lewis, L.K., Barrell, G.K. Steroids (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of oestradiol in the regulation of the seasonal antler cycle in female reindeer, Rangifer tarandus. Lincoln, G.A., Tyler, N.J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Correlations between phases of deer antler regeneration and levels of serum keratan sulfate. Dinsmore, C.E., Goss, R.J., Lenz, M.E., Thonar, E.J. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Temporal variation of fluoride concentration in antlers of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) living in an area exposed to emissions from iron and steel industry, 1948-2000. Kierdorf, U., Kierdorf, H. Chemosphere (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Correlation between antler and long bone relative bone mass and circulating androgens in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Brown, R.D., Cowan, R.L., Griel, L.C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Seasonal levels of serum parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and alkaline phosphatase in relation to antler cycles in white-tailed deer. Chao, C.C., Brown, R.D., Deftos, L.J. Acta Endocrinol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of environmental conditions, human activity, reproduction, antler cycle and grouping on fecal glucocorticoids of free-ranging Pampas deer stags (Ozotoceros bezoarticus bezoarticus). Garcia Pereira, R.J., Barbanti Duarte, J.M., Negrão, J.A. Hormones and behavior. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of an antiandrogen treatment on the antler cycle of male fallow deer (Dama dama L.). Kierdorf, U., Schultz, M., Fischer, K. J. Exp. Zool. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of antiandrogen cyproterone acetate on the development of the antler cycle in Southern pudu (Pudu puda). Bubenik, G.A., Reyes, E., Schams, D., Lobos, A., Bartos, L., Koerner, F. J. Exp. Zool. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Temporal and seasonal relationships between LH, testosterone and antlers in fawn and adult male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.): a longitudinal study from birth to four years of age. Sempéré, A.J., Lacroix, A. Acta Endocrinol. (1982) [Pubmed]
 
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