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Psychiatry related information on Proxy


High impact information on Proxy

  • Using a multi-species record from the Last Glacial Maximum in the North Atlantic Ocean we found that past temperatures reconstructed from Mg/Ca ratios followed the two other palaeotemperature proxies: faunal abundance and alkenone saturation [2].
  • The evidence comes from a close correlation between inferred changes in production rates of the cosmogenic nuclides carbon-14 and beryllium-10 and centennial to millennial time scale changes in proxies of drift ice measured in deep-sea sediment cores [3].
  • The evidence supporting a pre-K-T age was obtained from Yaxcopoil-1 based on five independent proxies, each with characteristic signals across the K-T transition: sedimentology, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, stable isotopes, and iridium [4].
  • All showed enhanced expression in cells that had been acutely stimulated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and phorbol ester as chemical proxies for T-cell receptor-mediated signals [5].
  • We found that when the 15N enrichment of citrulline and aspartate in the perfusate were used as proxies for that in the mitochondrial ammonia and cytoplasmic aspartate pools we could accurately predict the relative proportion of the three isotopomers [6].

Biological context of Proxy

  • Correlations were found between microbial biomass and aminopeptidase and chitinase rates, which were used as proxies for microbial activity [7].
  • Accordingly, in the present laboratory study, the effect of light (in the range 300-500 nm) on the uptake kinetics of NO2 on various surfaces taken as proxies for organic surfaces encountered in the troposphere (as organic aerosol but also ground surfaces) was investigated [8].

Associations of Proxy with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSIONS: Proxies of inflammation and dietary protein intake exert competing effects on serum albumin and creatinine in hemodialysis patients [9].
  • Samples of the minerals serpentine, enstatite, olivine, and talc have been used as proxies for minerals existing in extraterrestrial matter [10].
  • By the mid-1970s, single biochemical proxies (ergosterol, marker fatty acids, chitin derivatives, etc.) were being used increasingly [11].
  • The Health Utilities Index Mark II (HUI:2) questionnaire was administered to caregivers of patients who responded both as proxies for patients and for themselves [12].
  • The problems associated with this new technique of using nitrates as proxies to identify solar proton events are discussed [13].

Gene context of Proxy

  • The processing of the 3'-end of the Rnf33 mRNA is also in disarray with multiple 3'-ends, an event that may be related to the absence of the AAUAAA element and the utilization of AAUAAA-like proxies [14].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The MSIS-29 can be used reliably in proxies of patients with MS [1].
  • The battery was administered to 64 adults with mild to moderate epilepsy and their proxies (relative or close friend) on two separate visits 2-3 weeks apart [15].
  • Use of proxies to measure health and functional outcomes in effectiveness research in persons with Alzheimer disease and related disorders [16].
  • The ratios of cis 9-16:1:16:0 or cis 9-18:1:18:0, proxies for Delta(9)-desaturase activity, were markedly lower in the carcasses of the dams and pups fed t10, c12-18:2 [17].


  1. Psychometric evaluation of the multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29) for proxy use. van der Linden, F.A., Kragt, J.J., Klein, M., van der Ploeg, H.M., Polman, C.H., Uitdehaag, B.M. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Past temperature and delta18O of surface ocean waters inferred from foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios. Elderfield, H., Ganssen, G. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic climate during the Holocene. Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M.N., Showers, W., Hoffmann, S., Lotti-Bond, R., Hajdas, I., Bonani, G. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Chicxulub impact predates the K-T boundary mass extinction. Keller, G., Adatte, T., Stinnesbeck, W., Rebolledo-Vieyra, M., Fucugauchi, J.U., Kramar, U., Stüben, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. In vitro transfection of fresh thymocytes and T cells shows subset-specific expression of viral promoters. Novak, T.J., Yoshimura, F.K., Rothenberg, E.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. A mass isotopomer study of urea and glutamine synthesis from 15N-labeled ammonia in the perfused rat liver. Brosnan, J.T., Brosnan, M.E., Charron, R., Nissim, I. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Prokaryotic metabolic activity and community structure in Antarctic continental shelf sediments. Bowman, J.P., McCammon, S.A., Gibson, J.A., Robertson, L., Nichols, P.D. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Photoenhanced uptake of gaseous NO2 on solid organic compounds: a photochemical source of HONO? George, C., Strekowski, R.S., Kleffmann, J., Stemmler, K., Ammann, M. Faraday Discuss. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Inflammation and dietary protein intake exert competing effects on serum albumin and creatinine in hemodialysis patients. Kaysen, G.A., Chertow, G.M., Adhikarla, R., Young, B., Ronco, C., Levin, N.W. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Chemometric evaluation of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry data of minerals in the frame of future in situ analyses of cometary material by COSIMA onboard ROSETTA. Engrand, C., Kissel, J., Krueger, F.R., Martin, P., Silén, J., Thirkell, L., Thomas, R., Varmuza, K. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Filamentous fungi: the indeterminate lifestyle and microbial ecology. Klein, D.A., Paschke, M.W. Microb. Ecol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Health utilities in Alzheimer's disease: a cross-sectional study of patients and caregivers. Neumann, P.J., Kuntz, K.M., Leon, J., Araki, S.S., Hermann, R.C., Hsu, M.A., Weinstein, M.C. Medical care. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of major proton fluence events from nitrates in polar ice cores. Shea, M.A., Smart, D.F., Dreschhoff, G.A. Radiation measurements. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Different modes of regulation of transcription and pre-mRNA processing of the structurally juxtaposed homologs, Rnf33 and Rnf35, in eggs and in pre-implantation embryos. Choo, K.B., Chen, H.H., Liu, T.Y., Chang, C.P. Nucleic Acids Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. A new quality-of-life inventory for epilepsy patients: interim results. Perrine, K.R. Epilepsia (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Use of proxies to measure health and functional outcomes in effectiveness research in persons with Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Magaziner, J. Alzheimer disease and associated disorders. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of dietary cis 9, trans 11-18:2, trans 10, cis 12-18:2, or vaccenic acid (trans 11-18:1) during lactation on body composition, tissue fatty acid profiles, and litter growth in mice. Loor, J.J., Lin, X., Herbein, J.H. Br. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
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