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Chemical Compound Review

AC1O3SSL     iron; magnesium; silicic acid

Synonyms: (Mg,Fe)Sio3, 19086-72-7, Magnesium iron silicate
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Disease relevance of Olivine

  • High-pressure and high-temperature torsion experiments on olivine aggregates in dislocation creep show about 15 to 20% strain weakening before steady-state behavior, characterized by subgrain-rotation recrystallization and a strong lattice preferred orientation [1].
  • In this study, the pulmonary toxicity of blasting sand was compared to five additional abrasive blasting substitutes: steel grit, copper slag, nickel slag, crushed glass, and olivine [2].
  • In comparison to blasting sand, olivine exposed rats had higher levels of pulmonary inflammation and damage with a similar level of fibrosis [2].
  • Dental caries prevalence in the Rapakivi granite and olivine diabase areas of Laitila, Finland [3].

High impact information on Olivine

  • Here we report the percolation threshold for molten iron-sulphur compounds of approximately 5 vol.% in solid olivine, based on electrical conductivity measurements made in situ at high pressure and temperature [4].
  • Theoretical models of mantle flow have been used to infer that, for progressive simple shear imparted by the motion of an overriding tectonic plate, the a-axes of olivine crystals should align themselves parallel to the direction of plate motion [5].
  • Here we report a rare case in which olivine (with 93.3% forsterite; Mg2SiO4) phenocrysts, precipitated from an unerupted komatiitic melt (approximately 24% MgO) of the Tristan mantle plume head 132 Myr ago, were carried to upper-crust levels in northwest Namibia by less Mg-rich (9.6-18.5% MgO) magmas [6].
  • In situ ion microprobe analyses of oxygen isotopes in Yamato-86009 and Murchison chondrites show that they contain abundant olivine-rich inclusions that have large oxygen-16 (16O) excesses, similar to those in spinel grains in calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in Allende and other carbonaceous chondrites [7].
  • At all epochs, 8- to 13-micrometer spectra of the central coma revealed a strong silicate emission feature, including an 11.2-micrometer feature indicative of crystalline olivine, even when the comet was at a heliocentric distance of 4.1 astronomical units [8].

Biological context of Olivine


Anatomical context of Olivine


Associations of Olivine with other chemical compounds

  • We have studied the effects of the substrate, namely amorphous olivine (MgFeSiO(4)) cosmic dust analogues (CDAs), in synthesis of molecules obtained after 200 keV proton irradiation of formamide (NH(2)COH) [15].
  • Changes in the electronic structure of olivine Li(1-x)CoPO(4), 4.8 V positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries, were investigated using the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) technique [16].
  • Data from the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) on the Mars Express spacecraft identify the distinct mafic, rock-forming minerals olivine, low-calcium pyroxene (LCP), and high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) on the surface of Mars [17].

Gene context of Olivine

  • Assuming diffusional transport in plane sheets, apparent diffusion coefficients were determined at temperatures of 600-800 degrees C. The activation energy for this diffusion in olivine is 208 +/- 17 kJ/mol [18].
  • Discovery of olivine in the Nili Fssae region of Mars [19].
  • Olivine and pyroxene diversity in the crust of Mars [17].
  • Olivine- and HCP-rich regions are found in deposits that span the age range of geologic units [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Olivine


  1. High shear strain of olivine aggregates: rheological and seismic consequences. Bystricky, M., Kunze, K., Burlini, L., Burg, J. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparative pulmonary toxicity of blasting sand and five substitute abrasive blasting agents. Porter, D.W., Hubbs, A.F., Robinson, V.A., Battelli, L.A., Greskevitch, M., Barger, M., Landsittel, D., Jones, W., Castranova, V. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Dental caries prevalence in the Rapakivi granite and olivine diabase areas of Laitila, Finland. Pärkö, A. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society. Suomen Hammaslääkäriseuran toimituksia. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Core formation in planetesimals triggered by permeable flow. Yoshino, T., Walter, M.J., Katsura, T. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Resistance to mantle flow inferred from the electromagnetic strike of the Australian upper mantle. Simpson, F. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Transient high temperatures in mantle plume heads inferred from magnesian olivines in Phanerozoic picrites. Thompson, R.N., Gibson, S.A. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. 16O excesses in olivine inclusions in Yamato-86009 and Murchison chondrites and their relation to CAIs. Hiyagon, H., Hashimoto, A. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Ground-based thermal infrared observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) during 1996. Hayward, T.L., Hanner, M.S. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere: observations of atmospheric heating and constraints on their interrelationships and sources. Sandford, S.A., Bradley, J.P. Icarus. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative pathological aspects of chronic olivine and silica inhalation in mice. Wilson, T., Scheuchenzuber, W.J., Eskew, M.L., Zarkower, A. Environmental research. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Helium solubility in olivine and implications for high 3He/4He in ocean island basalts. Parman, S.W., Kurz, M.D., Hart, S.R., Grove, T.L. Nature (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Wear of teeth due to occupational exposure to airborne olivine dust. Jokstad, A., Von Der Fehr, F.R., Løvlie, G.R., Myran, T. Acta Odontol. Scand. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of prolonged inhalation of silica and olivine dusts on immune functions in the mouse. Scheuchenzuber, W.J., Eskew, M.L., Zarkower, A. Environmental research. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. The occurrence of potassium in dental enamel in the Rapakivi granite and olivine diabase areas of Laitila, Finland. Pärkö, A. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society. Suomen Hammaslääkäriseuran toimituksia. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Cryogenic synthesis of molecules of astrobiological interest: catalytic role of cosmic dust analogues. Brucato, J.R., Strazzulla, G., Baratta, G.A., Rotundi, A., Colangeli, L. Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere : the journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopic study on the electronic structure of Li(1)(-)(x)()CoPO(4) electrodes as 4.8 V positive electrodes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Nakayama, M., Goto, S., Uchimoto, Y., Wakihara, M., Kitajima, Y., Miyanaga, T., Watanabe, I. The journal of physical chemistry. B, Condensed matter, materials, surfaces, interfaces & biophysical. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Olivine and pyroxene diversity in the crust of Mars. Mustard, J.F., Poulet, F., Gendrin, A., Bibring, J.P., Langevin, Y., Gondet, B., Mangold, N., Bellucci, G., Altieri, F. Science (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. In situ high-temperature visible microspectroscopy for volcanic materials. Yamanoi, Y., Nakashima, S. Applied spectroscopy. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Discovery of olivine in the Nili Fssae region of Mars. Hoefen, T.M., Clark, R.N., Bandfield, J.L., Smith, M.D., Pearl, J.C., Christensen, P.R. Science (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Production of iron nanoparticles by laser irradiation in a simulation of lunar-like space weathering. Sasaki, S., Nakamura, K., Hamabe, Y., Kurahashi, E., Hiroi, T. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. The strength of Mg(0.9)Fe(0.1)SiO3 perovskite at high pressure and temperature. Chen, J., Weidner, D.J., Vaughan, M.T. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. The chemical structure of the Hawaiian mantle plume. Ren, Z.Y., Ingle, S., Takahashi, E., Hirano, N., Hirata, T. Nature (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Longitudinal study of dental caries prevalence in the rapakivi granite and olivine diabase areas of Laitila, Finland. Pärkö, A. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society. Suomen Hammaslääkäriseuran toimituksia. (1980) [Pubmed]
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