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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Caregivers

  • Even more rare are population-based studies of quality of life (QOL) among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their caregivers [1].
  • Nocturia is a particularly disabling symptom of neurogenic bladder; by disrupting sleep patterns, it aggravates the chronic fatigue of MS, imposes serious demands on caregivers, and can lead to institutionalization [2].
  • An analysis of the safety of diazepam rectal gel reveals that this formulation has certain advantages over intravenous diazepam administration: most notably a very low incidence of respiratory depression, low potential for abuse and the opportunity for out-of-hospital use by non-professional caregivers [3].
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the circumstances in which individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) die, the role of different caregivers, and the extent of palliative care for CF patients [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate, at 0.3 mg/kg/dose, given twice a day to individuals with attentional complaints after traumatic brain injury, seems to have clinically significant positive effects on speed of processing, caregiver ratings of attention, and some aspects of on-task behavior in naturalistic tasks [5].

Psychiatry related information on Caregivers


High impact information on Caregivers

  • CONCLUSIONS: Rectal diazepam gel, administered at home by trained care givers, is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for acute repetitive seizures [11].
  • In the other, care givers were not aware of the hemoglobin A1c levels and relied on blood or urine glucose measurements to monitor treatment [12].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term effectiveness of comprehensive support and counseling for spouse-caregivers and families in postponing or preventing nursing home placement of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) [13].
  • Peripheral-blood leucocytes from caregivers produced significantly less interleukin-1 beta mRNA in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation than did controls' cells [14].
  • There were no systematic group differences in chronic health problems, medications, or health-relevant behaviors that might have accounted for caregivers' steeper IL-6 slope [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Caregivers


Biological context of Caregivers

  • However, heavier prenatal cocaine exposure, in interaction with maternal contextual variables (public assistance or multiparity) was associated with alterations in infant socio-affective behavior, including a higher level of behavioral disorganization, more avoidance of the caregiver, and less crying [21].
  • METHODS: Over a 14-month period, we analyzed responses from 27 ALS patients and 19 ALS caregivers as they arrived at the Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Vicki Appel MDA, ALS Clinic, and those who completed the study measures [22].
  • Both patient symptom ratings and caregiver ratings were measured before and after 4 weeks of treatment with the maximally tolerated dose of bupropion in the range of 100-300 mg per day [23].
  • For microbiologists, hospital infection control officers, caregivers, and most of all the CF community, the changes in our understanding of the taxonomy, epidemiology and pathogenesis of the bacterium 'B. cepacia' are complex [24].
  • Budesonide inhalation suspension was associated with significantly greater caregiver satisfaction, convenience, ease of use, and compliance compared with cromolyn sodium nebulizer solution [25].

Anatomical context of Caregivers

  • In addition, caregivers had blunted mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, lower mitogen-induced IL-2 production, and reduced lymphocyte sensitivity to glucocorticoids [26].

Associations of Caregivers with chemical compounds

  • NK activity and plasma concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y were measured in depressed patients (n = 19) and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 19), and in Alzheimer spousal caregivers (n = 48) and matched noncaregiver controls (n = 17) [27].
  • Women completing the trial receiving ERT and tacrine improved more than women not receiving ERT who were randomized to tacrine or to placebo as assessed by cognitive (p <0.01), clinical (p = 0.02), caregiver (p = 0.006), and mental status (p = 0.07) ratings [28].
  • CSF GABA in caregiver spouses of Alzheimer patients [29].
  • METHODS: Salivary cortisol was measured in 22 patients with HC damage (12 with bilateral damage and 10 with unilateral damage), 7 brain-damaged comparison participants, 10 healthy, age-matched comparison participants, and 6 of the patients' caregivers [30].
  • Metrifonate also clearly improved the global function of the AD patients when compared with placebo (Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change with Caregiver Input [CIBIC-Plus], p = 0.0001) [31].

Gene context of Caregivers

  • However, the percentage of IL-10(+) cells was higher in lymphocytes obtained from caregivers than control subjects [32].
  • RESULTS: Caregiver men had fewer CD4 cell counts at Times 1 and 2 than did control men (p < .05) [33].
  • CONCLUSION: Caregiver status, hassles, and depressed mood had cross-sectional and/or longitudinal associations with CD4 and CD8 counts, but such relationships occurred primarily in men [33].
  • RESULTS: Similar to other studies, we found that combinations of caregiver background characteristics, stressors, and resources at wave 1 had direct effects on African American caregivers' health outcomes at wave 3 [34].
  • The approval in 1996 of the first of the second generation acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, donepexil (Aricept, Eisai/Pfizer), has offered new hope, albeit palliative, to AD sufferers and care givers [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Caregivers

  • BACKGROUND: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) commonly exhibit psychosis and behavioral disturbances that impair patient functioning, create caregiver distress, and lead to institutionalization [36].
  • Patients and caregivers should be aware of the likelihood of poor outcomes following hospitalization for exacerbation of COPD associated with hypercarbia [37].
  • RESULTS: The group of children with IQs at or above 90 (n = 32) did not differ from the group with IQs below 90 (n = 118) in prenatal or natal characteristics (all P> or =.18) or proportion in foster care, attendance at day care or Head Start, continued caregiver cocaine use, or parental IQ [38].
  • In large clinical trials in moderate to severe AD (a stage that is associated with distress for patients and caregiver burden, and for which other treatments are not available), memantine showed an ability to delay cognitive and functional deterioration [39].
  • To provide evidence concerning caregivers' perceptions and experiences of terminal care service delivery in South Australia for a State Parliamentary Select Committee on the Law and Practice Relating to Death and Dying, a structured interview was conducted with surviving caregivers 1 year or more after the death of a family member [40].


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  5. Effects of methylphenidate on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: a multidimensional, randomized, controlled trial. Whyte, J., Hart, T., Vaccaro, M., Grieb-Neff, P., Risser, A., Polansky, M., Coslett, H.B. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  9. Ethnicity, stress, and cortisol function in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women: A preliminary study of family dementia caregivers and noncaregivers. Gallagher-Thompson, D., Shurgot, G.R., Rider, K., Gray, H.L., McKibbin, C.L., Kraemer, H.C., Sephton, S.E., Thompson, L.W. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The Sleep Disorders Inventory: an instrument for studies of sleep disturbance in persons with Alzheimer's disease. Tractenberg, R.E., Singer, C.M., Cummings, J.L., Thal, L.J. Journal of sleep research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. A comparison of rectal diazepam gel and placebo for acute repetitive seizures. Dreifuss, F.E., Rosman, N.P., Cloyd, J.C., Pellock, J.M., Kuzniecky, R.I., Lo, W.D., Matsuo, F., Sharp, G.B., Conry, J.A., Bergen, D.C., Bell, W.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of long-term monitoring of glycosylated hemoglobin levels in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Larsen, M.L., Hørder, M., Mogensen, E.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. A family intervention to delay nursing home placement of patients with Alzheimer disease. A randomized controlled trial. Mittelman, M.S., Ferris, S.H., Shulman, E., Steinberg, G., Levin, B. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Slowing of wound healing by psychological stress. Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Marucha, P.T., Malarkey, W.B., Mercado, A.M., Glaser, R. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Chronic stress and age-related increases in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Preacher, K.J., MacCallum, R.C., Atkinson, C., Malarkey, W.B., Glaser, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Efficacy of donepezil on maintenance of activities of daily living in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease and the effect on caregiver burden. Feldman, H., Gauthier, S., Hecker, J., Vellas, B., Emir, B., Mastey, V., Subbiah, P. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Prenatal exposure to methylmercury and child development: influence of social factors. Davidson, P.W., Myers, G.J., Shamlaye, C., Cox, C., Wilding, G.E. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Psychological distress, caregiving, and metabolic variables. Vitaliano, P.P., Scanlan, J.M., Krenz, C., Schwartz, R.S., Marcovina, S.M. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Alzheimer's disease: usefulness of the Family Strain Questionnaire and the Screen for Caregiver Burden in the study of caregiving-related problems. Ferrario, S.R., Vitaliano, P., Zotti, A.M., Galante, E., Fornara, R. International journal of geriatric psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Interrater reliability of the short-memory questionnaire in a variety of health professional representatives. Maki, N., Ikeda, M., Hokoishi, K., Nomura, M., Torikawa, S., Fujimoto, N., Komori, K., Hirono, N., Tanabe, H. International journal of geriatric psychiatry. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Level of prenatal cocaine exposure and infant-caregiver attachment behavior. Beeghly, M., Frank, D.A., Rose-Jacobs, R., Cabral, H., Tronick, E. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. A study comparing patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their caregivers on measures of quality of life, depression, and their attitudes toward treatment options. Trail, M., Nelson, N.D., Van, J.N., Appel, S.H., Lai, E.C. J. Neurol. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. An open-label study of the effects of bupropion SR on fatigue, depression and quality of life of mixed-site cancer patients and their partners. Moss, E.L., Simpson, J.S., Pelletier, G., Forsyth, P. Psycho-oncology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Burkholderia cepacia complex infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. Mahenthiralingam, E., Baldwin, A., Vandamme, P. J. Med. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of budesonide inhalation suspension compared with cromolyn sodium nebulizer solution on health status and caregiver quality of life in childhood asthma. Murphy, K.R., Fitzpatrick, S., Cruz-Rivera, M., Miller, C.J., Parasuraman, B. Pediatrics (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Chronic stress in caregivers of dementia patients is associated with reduced lymphocyte sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Bauer, M.E., Vedhara, K., Perks, P., Wilcock, G.K., Lightman, S.L., Shanks, N. J. Neuroimmunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Neuropeptide Y and natural killer cell activity: findings in depression and Alzheimer caregiver stress. Irwin, M., Brown, M., Patterson, T., Hauger, R., Mascovich, A., Grant, I. FASEB J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Potential role for estrogen replacement in the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia. Schneider, L.S., Farlow, M.R., Pogoda, J.M. Am. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. CSF GABA in caregiver spouses of Alzheimer patients. Pomara, N., Deptula, D., Galloway, M.P., LeWitt, P.A., Stanley, M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Circadian regulation of cortisol after hippocampal damage in humans. Buchanan, T.W., Kern, S., Allen, J.S., Tranel, D., Kirschbaum, C. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Metrifonate treatment of AD: influence of APOE genotype. Farlow, M.R., Cyrus, P.A., Nadel, A., Lahiri, D.K., Brashear, A., Gulanski, B. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Evidence for a shift in the Th-1 to Th-2 cytokine response associated with chronic stress and aging. Glaser, R., MacCallum, R.C., Laskowski, B.F., Malarkey, W.B., Sheridan, J.F., Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. CD4 and CD8 counts are associated with interactions of gender and psychosocial stress. Scanlan, J.M., Vitaliano, P.P., Ochs, H., Savage, M.V., Borson, S. Psychosomatic medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Can culture help explain the physical health effects of caregiving over time among African American caregivers? Dilworth-Anderson, P., Goodwin, P.Y., Williams, S.W. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. (2004) [Pubmed]
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