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MeSH Review

Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses

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Disease relevance of Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses


High impact information on Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses

  • Previously we reported that in cell cultures from first backcross progeny, this Rmcf-linked restriction segregates with the expression of an endogenous retroviral gp70 serologically related to that of MCF viruses [5].
  • The expression of the Rmcfr gene is correlated with the constitutive expression of an MCF virus-related envelope glycoprotein that apparently blocks the receptor for MCF viruses, preventing their spread [6].
  • Friend murine leukemia virus-induced leukemia is associated with the formation of mink cell focus-inducing viruses and is blocked in mice expressing endogenous mink cell focus-inducing xenotropic viral envelope genes [7].
  • The serological profile of MCF viruses thus supports the contention that they are env gene recombinants between ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses [8].
  • The majority of Akv oligonucleotides missing from T1 fingerprints of MCFs and the majority of oligonucleotides unique to MCF viruses are clustered and lie at corresponding positions in the 3' half of the oligonucleotide maps of Akv and MCF viruses [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses

  • The gp52 shared immunological reactivity and methionine-containing tryptic peptides with the gp70 of a Friend MCF virus and was expressed on the surface of SFFV-infected cells as well as in the cytoplasm [10].

Biological context of Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses


Anatomical context of Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses

  • Furthermore, when the cDNA for the human IL-2 receptor beta chain, which is related by sequence to the erythropoietin receptor, was introduced into this cell line, it became growth factor independent after infection either with SFFV or with one of the two MCF viruses but not with an ecotropic virus [3].
  • Newborn IRW mice inoculated with Moloney-MuLV produced MCF viruses in both spleen and thymus [16].

Gene context of Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses

  • The Rmcf gene may be of much use as a means of determining the role of MCF viruses in various forms of leukemogenesis [17].
  • Some alteration in c-myc and Pim-1 genes were also found in MNU-induced tumors, but, mainly, these involved integration of ecotropic-like rather than recombinant MCF viruses [18].
  • In backcross progeny, inheritance of Rmcf resistance correlated with inheritance of a specific endogenous MCF virus env-containing 4.6-kb EcoRI fragment [19].
  • The rate of MCF virus spread through a population of permissive human cells was increased by establishment of trans activation, indicating that Syg1 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways function in parallel [20].
  • To determine whether the Ikaros-binding sites are functional in vivo, we inoculated newborn mice with a variant MCF virus containing a mutant Ikaros-binding site [21].


  1. Helper-independent mink cell focus-inducing strains of Friend murine type-C virus: potential relationship to the origin of replication-defective spleen focus-forming virus. Troxler, D.H., Yuan, E., Linemeyer, D., Ruscetti, S., Scolnick, E.M. J. Exp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Infection by mink cell focus-forming viruses confers interleukin 2 (IL-2) independence to an IL-2-dependent rat T-cell lymphoma line. Tsichlis, P.N., Bear, S.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanism of leukemogenesis induced by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses. Li, J.P., Baltimore, D. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Characteristics and contributions of defective, ecotropic, and mink cell focus-inducing viruses involved in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice. Chattopadhyay, S.K., Sengupta, D.N., Fredrickson, T.N., Morse, H.C., Hartley, J.W. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. The endogenous mink cell focus-forming (MCF) gp70 linked to the Rmcf gene restricts MCF virus replication in vivo and provides partial resistance to erythroleukemia induced by Friend murine leukemia virus. Buller, R.S., Sitbon, M., Portis, J.L. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Susceptibility of BALB/c mice carrying various DBA/2 genes to development of Friend murine leukemia virus-induced erythroleukemia. Ruscetti, S., Matthai, R., Potter, M. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Friend murine leukemia virus-induced leukemia is associated with the formation of mink cell focus-inducing viruses and is blocked in mice expressing endogenous mink cell focus-inducing xenotropic viral envelope genes. Ruscetti, S., Davis, L., Feild, J., Oliff, A. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Cell-surface antigens associated with recombinant mink cell focus-inducing murine leukemia viruses. Cloyd, M.W., Hartley, J.W., Rowe, W.P. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization and mapping of RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides derived from the genomes of Akv and MCF murine leukemia viruses. Rommelaere, J., Faller, D.V., Hopkins, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of a protein found in cells infected with the spleen focus-forming virus that shares immunological cross-reactivity with the gp70 found in mink cell focus-inducing virus particles. Ruscetti, S.K., Linemeyer, D., Feild, J., Troxler, D., Scolnick, E.M. J. Virol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Envelope gene of the Friend spleen focus-forming virus: deletion and insertions in 3' gp70/p15E-encoding region have resulted in unique features in the primary structure of its protein product. Wolff, L., Scolnick, E., Ruscetti, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequence-specific and/or stereospecific constraints of the U3 enhancer elements of MCF 247-W are important for pathogenicity. DiFronzo, N.L., Holland, C.A. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Nonecotropic murine leukemia viruses in BALB/c and NFS/N mice: characterization of the BALB/c Bxv-1 provirus and the single NFS endogenous xenotrope. Hoggan, M.D., O'Neill, R.R., Kozak, C.A. J. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of the env gene and long terminal repeat of molecularly cloned Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus DNA. Adachi, A., Sakai, K., Kitamura, N., Nakanishi, S., Niwa, O., Matsuyama, M., Ishimoto, A. J. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Mapping of the Pim-1 oncogene in mouse t-haplotypes and its use to define the relative map positions of the tcl loci t0(t6) and tw12 and the marker tf (tufted). Ark, B., Gummere, G., Bennett, D., Artzt, K. Genomics (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Pseudotyping of dual-tropic recombinant viruses generated by infection of mice with different ecotropic murine leukemia viruses. Sitbon, M., Nishio, J., Wehrly, K., Chesebro, B. Virology (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. A mouse gene on chromosome 5 that restricts infectivity of mink cell focus-forming recombinant murine leukemia viruses. Hartley, J.W., Yetter, R.A., Morse, H.C. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Chemical induction of thymomas in AKR mice: interaction of chemical carcinogens and endogenous murine leukemia viruses. Comparison of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and methyl methanesulphonate. Warren, W., Clark, J.P., Gardner, E., Harris, G., Cooper, C.S., Lawley, P.D. Mol. Carcinog. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of a polytropic murine leukemia virus proviral sequence associated with the virus resistance gene Rmcf of DBA/2 mice. Jung, Y.T., Lyu, M.S., Buckler-White, A., Kozak, C.A. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. A virus-virus interaction circumvents the virus receptor requirement for infection by pathogenic retroviruses. Wensel, D.L., Li, W., Cunningham, J.M. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Ikaros, a lymphoid-cell-specific transcription factor, contributes to the leukemogenic phenotype of a mink cell focus-inducing murine leukemia virus. DiFronzo, N.L., Leung, C.T., Mammel, M.K., Georgopoulos, K., Taylor, B.J., Pham, Q.N. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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