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Gene Review

env  -  envelope protein

Friend murine leukemia virus

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Disease relevance of env

  • The positions of a 585-base deletion, a 6-base duplication, and a point insertion that leads to a frame shift and premature protein termination in the ecotropic 3' end of env were invariant between three spleen focus-forming virus strains, indicating that they had a single common ancestor [1].
  • In contrast, a chimeric virus, FrCasE, containing env and 3' pol sequences of 15-1 in a Friend murine leukemia virus background, infects the CNS at high levels and causes a rapid neurodegenerative disease with an incubation period of only 16 days [2].
  • All transplantable leukemias lacked helper virus contamination and contained a single tagged SFFV provirus that expressed the mitogenic env gene product gp55 [3].
  • The chimeric virus FrCasE, which consisted of the FB29 genome containing 3' pol and env sequences from the wild mouse virus, induced a highly predictable, lethal neurodegenerative disease with an incubation period of only 16 days [4].
  • The major viral determinant of severe early hemolytic anemia residues in the env gene, but sequences located outside this gene can modulate this effect [5].

High impact information on env

  • The envelope (env) gene from Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) was inserted into the genome of a vaccinia virus expression vector [6].
  • T-lymphocyte priming and protection against Friend leukemia by vaccinia-retrovirus env gene recombinant [6].
  • To identify the specificity of the FBL-reactive CD8+ CTL, Fisher rat embryo fibroblast (FRE) cells transfected with plasmids encoding F-MuLV gag or envelope (env) gene products plus the class I-restricting element Db were utilized [7].
  • In contrast, 10 of 11 responder lymphomas lacked env and/or gag determinants [8].
  • Cells expressing H-2Db and either the env or gag genes of one component of FV, helper Friend murine leukemia virus (FMuLV), were lysed by anti-FV CTL and by CTL generated against FMuLV alone [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of env

  • This influence of the H-2I region on T cell recognition of the envelope glycoprotein appeared to control in vivo induction of protective immunity against Friend virus complex after immunization with the vaccinia-F-MuLV env vaccine [10].
  • The primary envelope (env) gene product of the polycythemia-inducing variant of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (F-SFFVP), representing a glycoprotein with an apparent Mr of 52,000 (gp52), was isolated from F-SFFVP-infected normal rat kidney cells metabolically labeled with [2-3H]mannose in the presence or absence of glucose [11].
  • In contrast to all tyrosine kinase receptors transduced in retroviruses, no helper gag- or env-derived sequences were fused to the rearranged fms sequences [12].
  • To overcome host cell DNA methylation that suppresses viral gene expression, we constructed a chimeric retroviral helper virus, pAM3-IRES-Zeo, that contains Moloney murine leukemia virus as a helper virus and a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence followed by a Zeocin selection marker at the 3' end of the env sequence [13].
  • We also observed that at longer chase periods (4 hr), the effect of cerulenin could be partially overriden in that minor amounts of cleaved gag and env coded polyproteins were produced and assembled into virion particles [14].

Biological context of env

  • In addition, sequences within a region of the genome between a ClaI site at the 3' end of env to the KpnI site in the R region of the LTR (inclusive of U3) also influenced the incubation period of the disease, but the effect was distinctly weaker than that of the R-U5-5' leader sequence [4].
  • This region contains the tRNA primer binding site, splice donor site for the subgenomic env mRNA, and the packaging sequence [4].
  • This DNA fragment encompassed approximately 700 base pairs from the 3' end of the F-MuLV pol gene and 1.7 kilobase pairs of the env gene including all of gp70 and the N-terminal four-fifths of p15E [15].
  • The NHI3T3 cells transfected with pA8(Psi-)delta showed expressions of both env and gag genes [16].
  • To construct the expression vector, pA8(Psi-), which expresses the genes gag, pol and env derived from A8-V, the SV40 early region was used for the polyadenylation signal (polyA signal) [16].

Anatomical context of env


Associations of env with chemical compounds

  • Thymocytes of AKR mice express two species of gp70, the envelope glycoprotein of murine leukemia virus (MuLV), encoded by the env gene [22].
  • Our results demonstrate that the limited post-translational processing of the primary F-SFFVP env gene product is neither due to aberrant trimming of its oligomannosidic glycans nor due to transfer of immature lipid-linked oligosaccharide-intermediates as observed in glucose-starved cells [11].
  • When the env leader was inserted between two genes, such as lacZ and the neomycin resistance cassette, in a dicistronic vector, it allowed IRES-dependent translation of the 3' cistron in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system and in murine cells [23].
  • The dependence of these in vitro activities on env protein processing and their relationship to pathogenicity of SFFV were explored by using glycosylation site mutants of SFFV env [24].
  • Inhibition of cleavage of Moloney murine leukemia virus gag and env coded precursor polyproteins by cerulenin [14].

Regulatory relationships of env

  • To test whether expression of the amphotropic envelope protein was responsible for conferring this serum sensitivity to the RV, env was expressed in the absence of gag and pol in TE671 cells [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of env


  1. Fluidity of a retrovirus genome. Clark, S.P., Mak, T.W. J. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Murine retrovirus-induced spongiform encephalomyelopathy: host and viral factors which determine the length of the incubation period. Czub, M., McAtee, F.J., Portis, J.L. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. A tagged helper-free Friend virus causes clonal erythroblast immortality by specific proviral integration in the cellular genome. Spiro, C., Gliniak, B., Kabat, D. J. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. The R-U5-5' leader sequence of neurovirulent wild mouse retrovirus contains an element controlling the incubation period of neurodegenerative disease. Portis, J.L., Perryman, S., McAtee, F.J. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequences responsible for the distinctive hemolytic potentials of Friend and Moloney murine leukemia viruses are dispersed but confined to the psi-gag-PR region. Richardson, J., Corbin, A., Pozo, F., Orsoni, S., Sitbon, M. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. T-lymphocyte priming and protection against Friend leukemia by vaccinia-retrovirus env gene recombinant. Earl, P.L., Moss, B., Morrison, R.P., Wehrly, K., Nishio, J., Chesebro, B. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. FBL-reactive CD8+ cytotoxic and CD4+ helper T lymphocytes recognize distinct Friend murine leukemia virus-encoded antigens. Klarnet, J.P., Kern, D.E., Okuno, K., Holt, C., Lilly, F., Greenberg, P.D. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Primary virus-induced lymphomas evade T cell immunity by failure to express viral antigens. Vasmel, W.L., Sijts, E.J., Leupers, C.J., Matthews, E.A., Melief, C.J. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Friend virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize both gag and env gene-encoded specificities. Holt, C.A., Osorio, K., Lilly, F. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Genetic control of T cell responsiveness to the Friend murine leukemia virus envelope antigen. Identification of class II loci of the H-2 as immune response genes. Miyazawa, M., Nishio, J., Chesebro, B. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Carbohydrate structure of glycoprotein 52 encoded by the polycythemia-inducing strain of Friend spleen focus-forming virus. Strube, K.H., Schott, H.H., Geyer, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation of new oncogenic forms of the murine c-fms gene. de Parseval, N., Bordereaux, D., Varlet, P., Gisselbrecht, S., Sola, B. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Chimeric retroviral helper virus and picornavirus IRES sequence to eliminate DNA methylation for improved retroviral packaging cells. Young, W.B., Link, C.J. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of cleavage of Moloney murine leukemia virus gag and env coded precursor polyproteins by cerulenin. Ikuta, K., Luftig, R.B. Virology (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. A 2.4-kilobase-pair fragment of the Friend murine leukemia virus genome contains the sequences responsible for friend murine leukemia virus-induced erythroleukemia. Oliff, A., Ruscetti, S. J. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Interruption of env gene expression depending on the length of the SV40 early region used for the polyA signal. Yamakawa, K., Takase-Yoden, S., Watanabe, R. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of an epitope encoded in the env gene of Friend murine leukemia virus recognized by anti-Friend virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Ruan, K.S., Lilly, F. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Cell fusion induced by the murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein. Jones, J.S., Risser, R. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. A safe packaging line for gene transfer: separating viral genes on two different plasmids. Markowitz, D., Goff, S., Bank, A. J. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Sequence variability, gene structure, and expression of full-length human endogenous retrovirus H. Jern, P., Sperber, G.O., Ahlsén, G., Blomberg, J. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Cell-free transmission of Fv-4 resistance gene product controlling Friend leukemia virus-induced leukemogenesis: a unique mechanism for interference with viral infection. Kitagawa, M., Aizawa, S., Kamisaku, H., Ikeda, H., Hirokawa, K., Sado, T. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Amplified env and gag products on AKR cells. Origin from different murine leukemia virus genomes. Tung, J.S., Fleissner, E. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of an internal ribosomal entry segment in the 5' leader of murine leukemia virus env RNA. Deffaud, C., Darlix, J.L. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Erythropoietin receptor (EpoR)-dependent mitogenicity of spleen focus-forming virus correlates with viral pathogenicity and processing of env protein but not with formation of gp52-EpoR complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum. Wang, Y., Kayman, S.C., Li, J.P., Pinter, A. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Development of amphotropic murine retrovirus vectors resistant to inactivation by human serum. Pensiero, M.N., Wysocki, C.A., Nader, K., Kikuchi, G.E. Hum. Gene Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus: sequencing of the paralytogenic region of its genome and derivation of specific probes to study its origin and the structure of its recombinant genomes in leukemic tissues. Rassart, E., Nelbach, L., Jolicoeur, P. J. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA sequences in murine cell lines: implications for gene therapy safety testing by PCR. Allan, D.S., De Koven, A., Wild, A., Kamel-Reid, S., Dubé, I.D. Leuk. Lymphoma (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Enhanced c-Ki-ras expression associated with Friend virus integration in a bone marrow-derived mouse cell line. George, D.L., Glick, B., Trusko, S., Freeman, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Receptor-binding domain of murine leukemia virus envelope glycoproteins. Battini, J.L., Danos, O., Heard, J.M. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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