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Gene Review

Il2  -  interleukin 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: IL-2, Il-2, Interleukin-2, T-cell growth factor, TCGF
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Disease relevance of Il2


Psychiatry related information on Il2


High impact information on Il2


Chemical compound and disease context of Il2

  • While other proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1beta, IL-2, IL-6) did not interfere with the astrocytic glutamate response, incubation in CSF from septic meningitis patients (CSF-SM) also reduced the glutamate induced intracellular Ca2+ increase [14].
  • At 3.5 h after IL-1 beta, IL-2, or IL-8, administration of des-Arg9,Leu8-BK or HOE-140 (iv) completely reversed the hyperalgesia [15].
  • Increased PGE2 production does not appear to be responsible for the IL-2 alterations in colitis [16].
  • The addition of indomethacin to LPMC cultures decreased PGE2 levels in all groups, whereas IL-2 activity increased only for the chronic and resolved colitis groups [16].
  • IL-2 can cause vascular leakage and edema and for this reason we examined the antitumor activity of a combined treatment with IL-2 and melphalan in our well-established ILP in soft tissue sarcoma-bearing rats (BN175) [17].

Biological context of Il2


Anatomical context of Il2


Associations of Il2 with chemical compounds

  • IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 did not affect the production of nitrite, a stable metabolite of NO, by VSMC [26].
  • RESULTS: Pretreatment of the rings with IL-6 (10 ng/ml) for 180 min caused a significant inhibition of their contraction in response to 10(-5) M phenylephrine, wile Il-2 (10 ng/ml) and IL-8 (100 ng/ml) showed no significant effect on the contraction [26].
  • With T. spiralis antigen, Concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide stimulation, milk cells from both ethanol-treated and pair-fed groups were capable of producing tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-2 [24].
  • Milk cells from the ethanol group produced a significantly higher amount of IL-2 upon Con A stimulation, as compared with that from the pair-fed group (16 +/- 4 units/10(6) cells vs. 4 +/- 1 units/10(6) cells, p < 0.05) [24].
  • In vitro interleukin 2 (IL-2) production increased, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1beta, prostaglandin E2, and leukotriene B4 production decreased in the CLA20 group [27].

Physical interactions of Il2


Regulatory relationships of Il2


Other interactions of Il2

  • In cultured rat VSMC, synthesis of cAMP was increased time-dependently by IL-6, while IL-2 and IL-8 failed to show any significant effects [26].
  • CD5(-) CD4(-) CD86(-) CD80(-) CD134L(+) VDCs from infected, but not noninfected, rats spontaneously released large amounts of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, whereas all VDC subsets released comparable levels of IL-10 and IL-2 cytokines [21].
  • Interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma mRNA showed maximal expression on POD 12, while in autografts, a marked decrease was observed after POD 3 [34].
  • However, under our experimental conditions, IL1 alpha, IL2 and MCSF mRNA were not observed [35].
  • 2. Co-administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist (0.1 micrograms) with IL-1 beta (1 mu), IL-2 (10 mu) or IL-8 (0.1 mu) prevented the subsequent development of the hyperalgesia [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Il2


  1. The involvement of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor mechanisms in cytokine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. Davis, A.J., Perkins, M.N. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Opioid receptor-mediated effects of interleukin-2 on the [Ca2+]i transient and contraction in isolated ventricular myocytes of the rat. Cao, C.M., Xia, Q., Chen, Y.Y., Zhang, X., Shen, Y.L. Pflugers Arch. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The Gfi-1B proto-oncoprotein represses p21WAF1 and inhibits myeloid cell differentiation. Tong, B., Grimes, H.L., Yang, T.Y., Bear, S.E., Qin, Z., Du, K., El-Deiry, W.S., Tsichlis, P.N. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Interleukin involvement in anterior pituitary cell growth regulation: effects of IL-2 and IL-6. Arzt, E., Buric, R., Stelzer, G., Stalla, J., Sauer, J., Renner, U., Stalla, G.K. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Thymosin fraction 5 inhibits the proliferation of the rat neuroendocrine MMQ pituitary adenoma and C6 glioma cell lines in vitro. Spangelo, B.L., Farrimond, D.D., Thapa, M., Bulathsinghala, C.M., Bowman, K.L., Sareh, A., Hughes, F.M., Goldstein, A.L., Badamchian, M. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential effects of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2 and IL-6 on responding for rewarding lateral hypothalamic stimulation. Anisman, H., Kokkinidis, L., Borowski, T., Merali, Z. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Perinatal inflammatory cytokine challenge results in distinct neurobehavioral alterations in rats: implication in psychiatric disorders of developmental origin. Tohmi, M., Tsuda, N., Watanabe, Y., Kakita, A., Nawa, H. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of intra-hippocampal injection of interleukin-2 on pain threshold and formaldehyde-induced substance P-like immunoreactivity in periaqueductal gray and spinal cord. Wu, X., Li, H.D., Li, X.C., Ruan, H.Z., Wang, J. Zhongguo yao li xue bao = Acta pharmacologica Sinica. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Interconversion of CD45R subsets of CD4 T cells in vivo. Bell, E.B., Sparshott, S.M. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Interleukin-2 augments natural killer cell activity. Henney, C.S., Kuribayashi, K., Kern, D.E., Gillis, S. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Recovery of visual response of injured adult rat optic nerves treated with transglutaminase. Eitan, S., Solomon, A., Lavie, V., Yoles, E., Hirschberg, D.L., Belkin, M., Schwartz, M. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Activation of early gene expression in T lymphocytes by Oct-1 and an inducible protein, OAP40. Ullman, K.S., Flanagan, W.M., Edwards, C.A., Crabtree, G.R. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Interleukin-1 stimulation of astroglial proliferation after brain injury. Giulian, D., Lachman, L.B. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. TNFalpha reduces glutamate induced intracellular Ca(2+) increase in cultured cortical astrocytes. Köller, H., Trimborn, M., von Giesen, H., Schroeter, M., Arendt, G. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor mechanisms and cytokine-induced hyperalgesia in the rat. Perkins, M.N., Kelly, D., Davis, A.J. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Interleukin-2 activity of colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells in a rat model of experimental colitis. Gurbindo, C., Russo, P., Sabbah, S., Lohoues, M.J., Seidman, E. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Synergistic antitumor response of interleukin 2 with melphalan in isolated limb perfusion in soft tissue sarcoma-bearing rats. Hoving, S., Brunstein, F., aan de Wiel-Ambagtsheer, G., van Tiel, S.T., de Boeck, G., de Bruijn, E.A., Eggermont, A.M., ten Hagen, T.L. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. IL-1 and IFN-gamma increase vascular permeability. Martin, S., Maruta, K., Burkart, V., Gillis, S., Kolb, H. Immunology (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Gene expression of IL-10 in relationship to TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-2 in the rat brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Zhai, Q.H., Futrell, N., Chen, F.J. J. Neurol. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Cytokine mRNA levels in brain and peripheral tissues of the rat: relationships with plus-maze behavior. Pawlak, C.R., Schwarting, R.K., Bauhofer, A. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Phenotypic and functional characterization of vaginal dendritic cells in a rat model of Candida albicans vaginitis. De Bernardis, F., Lucciarini, R., Boccanera, M., Amantini, C., Arancia, S., Morrone, S., Mosca, M., Cassone, A., Santoni, G. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Prolongation of renal allograft survival in the rat treated with amniotic fluid. Yoshimura, N., Matsui, S., Hamashima, T., Lee, C.J., Ohsaka, Y., Hirakawa, K., Oka, T. Transplantation (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of interleukin-6, interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha on transferrin release from Sertoli cells in culture. Boockfor, F.R., Schwarz, L.K. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of maternal ethanol consumption on in vitro tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and interleukin-2 production by rat milk and blood leukocytes. Na, H.R., Seelig, L.L. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1-beta, interleukin 2, and interleukin 6 by rat leukocyte subpopulations after exposure to substance P. Delgado, A.V., McManus, A.T., Chambers, J.P. Neuropeptides (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of inflammatory cytokines on vascular tone. Ohkawa, F., Ikeda, U., Kanbe, T., Kawasaki, K., Shimada, K. Cardiovasc. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in rats at intake levels reported for breast-fed infants. Turpeinen, A.M., von Willebrand, E., Salminen, I., Linden, J., Basu, S., Rai, D. Lipids (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Sequence of rat interleukin 2 and anomalous binding of a mouse interleukin 2 cDNA probe to rat MHC class II-associated invariant chain mRNA. McKnight, A.J., Mason, D.W., Barclay, A.N. Immunogenetics (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of interleukin 1alpha and interleukin 2 over glucose metabolism in isolated uterus of restricted diet rats. Influence of NO and COX-2. Linares, J.A., Campos, M.L., Goldraij, A. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, naloxone, dexamethasone and indomethacin on interleukin-2-induced corticotropin-releasing factor release. Karanth, S., Lyson, K., Aguila, M.C., McCann, S.M. Neuroimmunomodulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Interleukin-2-activated rat natural killer cells express inducible nitric oxide synthase that contributes to cytotoxic function and interferon-gamma production. Cifone, M.G., D'Alò, S., Parroni, R., Millimaggi, D., Biordi, L., Martinotti, S., Santoni, A. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Recipient intramuscular cotransfection of transforming growth factor beta1 and interleukin 10 ameliorates acute lung graft rejection. Suda, T., Daddi, N., Tagawa, T., Kanaan, S.A., Kozower, B.D., Ritter, J.H., Patterson, G.A. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Susceptibility to cell death is a dominant phenotype: triggering of activation-driven T-cell death independent of the T-cell antigen receptor complex. Nickas, G., Meyers, J., Hebshi, L.D., Ashwell, J.D., Gold, D.P., Sydora, B., Ucker, D.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Cytokine mRNA expression during experimental corneal allograft rejection. Torres, P.F., De Vos, A.F., van der Gaag, R., Martins, B., Kijlstra, A. Exp. Eye Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Developmental expression of cytokine genes in the cortex and hippocampus of the rat central nervous system. Pousset, F. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Specific suppression of interleukin 2 biosynthesis by synthetic antisense oligodeoxynucleotides does not influence allograft rejection. Yun, S., Sawyer, G.J., Zhang, X., Gustafsson, K., Fabre, J.W. Transplantation (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Cytokine gene expression in pancreatic islet grafts in the rat. Ozasa, T., Newton, M.R., Dallman, M.J., Shimizu, S., Gray, D.W., Morris, P.J. Transplantation (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Effects of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and transferrin in cultured astrocytes. Oh, Y.J., Markelonis, G.J., Oh, T.H. Glia (1993) [Pubmed]
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