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MeSH Review

Dwarfism, Pituitary

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Disease relevance of Dwarfism, Pituitary

  • Eighteen patients with pituitary dwarfism were treated for 1 7/12 to 6 years with human growth hormone (hGH) at a dose of 0.19--0.62 unit (U) per kg of body weight per week [1].

High impact information on Dwarfism, Pituitary

  • Mutations that cause pituitary dwarfism in the mouse reside in the gene encoding the transcription factor growth hormone factor 1 (GHF1 or pit1) [2].
  • Hereditary pituitary dwarfism in mice affects skeletal and cardiac myosin isozyme transitions differently [3].
  • The results provide an explanation for the previously observed lack of epinephrine sensitivity of the cyclase of lymphoid cells of immunodeficient pituitary dwarf mice and suggest that the depressed lymphoid cell population of the dwarf is the result of an inability to recover from stress-related lymphoid involution [4].
  • In conclusion, although somatic gene therapy for GH delivery is beneficial for pituitary dwarfism, it may have adverse metabolic consequences in those with normal hypothalamic-pituitary functions, and the female mice were more severely affected than males [5].
  • Acromegalic sera produced curves parallel to the hGH standard and pituitary dwarf serum had no 125I-hGH displacing activity [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Dwarfism, Pituitary


Biological context of Dwarfism, Pituitary


Anatomical context of Dwarfism, Pituitary


Gene context of Dwarfism, Pituitary

  • Occasional expression of GH and PRL in the Ames dwarf pituitary may result from the "partial loss of function" nature of the Ames Prop-1 mutation [14].
  • The fasting plasma GHRH level in 22 patients with idiopathic pituitary dwarfism was 6.3 +/- 2.3 ng/l (mean +/- SD), which was significantly lower than that in normal children (9.8 +/- 2.8 ng/l, N = 21), and eight of them had undetectable concentrations (less than 4.0 ng/l) [13].
  • Pituitary dwarfism in the R271W Pit-1 gene mutation [15].
  • Furthermore, CRF and GRF-stimulation tests are useful in elucidating the cause of anterior pituitary failure and GRF may be of benefit for the treatment of pituitary dwarfism [16].
  • Isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency (IGHD) is detected in 1/10 of pituitary dwarfism, but there are only a few reports on IGHD as an autosomal-dominant trait [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dwarfism, Pituitary


  1. Serum levels of somatomedin A and growth during long-term treatment of patients with pituitary dwarfism with human growth hormone. Takano, K., Hizuka, N., Shizume, K., Hasumi, Y. Acta Endocrinol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Function of the homeodomain protein GHF1 in pituitary cell proliferation. Castrillo, J.L., Theill, L.E., Karin, M. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Hereditary pituitary dwarfism in mice affects skeletal and cardiac myosin isozyme transitions differently. Whalen, R.G., Toutant, M., Butler-Browne, G.S., Watkins, S.C. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Lymphoid cell adenylate cyclase activity after x-irradiation and cortisone treatment. Kemp, R.G., Duquesnoy, R.J. J. Immunol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Growth retardation--an unexpected outcome from growth hormone gene therapy in normal mice with microencapsulated myoblasts. Al-Hendy, A., Hortelano, G., Tannenbaum, G.S., Chang, P.L. Hum. Gene Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Characteristics of growth hormone binding to liver microsomes of pregnant women. D'Abronzo, F.H., Yamaguchi, M.I., Alves, R.S., Svartman, R., Mesquita, C.H., Nicolau, W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Low setting of feedback regulation of TSH secretion by thyroxine in pituitary dwarfism with TSH-releasing hormone deficiency. Sato, T., Ishiguro, K., Suzuki, Y., Taketani, T., Isumisawa, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I enhance beta-glucuronidase gene activation by androgen in mouse kidney. Niermann, G.L., Watson, G.L. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Assessment of prolactin release in pituitary dwarfism with the sulpiride test. Batrinos, M.L., Pavlou, S.N., Pitoulis, S.A., Sfikaki, A.P., Anousakis, C., Alexandrides, T.K., Piaditis, G.P. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Urinary proline to hydroxyproline ratio varies with age. Blumenkrantz, N., Howitz, P., Asboe-Hansen, G. Acta Derm. Venereol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunological competence in Snell-Bagg pituitary dwarf mice: response to the contact-sensitizing agent oxazolone. Schneider, G.B. Am. J. Anat. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. A case of severe pituitary dwarfism associated with prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone deficiencies. Yoshimoto, M., Kinoshita, E., Baba, T., Matsumoto, T., Nii-Kawa, N., Matsuda, I., Tsuji, Y. Acta paediatrica Scandinavica. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone in patients with idiopathic pituitary dwarfism and acromegaly. Yamasaki, R., Saito, H., Kameyama, K., Hosoi, E., Saito, S. Acta Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Pituitary hormones as neurotrophic signals: update on hypothalamic differentiation in genetic models of altered feedback. Phelps, C.J., Hurley, D.L. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Pituitary dwarfism in the R271W Pit-1 gene mutation. Aarskog, D., Eiken, H.G., Bjerknes, R., Myking, O.L. Eur. J. Pediatr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Corticotropin- and growth hormone-releasing factor (CRF and GRF) in the diagnosis of hypothalamo-pituitary diseases. von Werder, K., Müller, O.A. Neurosurgical review. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. A family case with autosomal-dominantly inherited pituitary dwarfism. Tani, N., Kaneko, K., Momotsu, T., Takasawa, T., Ito, S., Shibata, A., Miki, T., Tateishi, H., Kumahara, Y. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Somatomedin-C levels in treated and untreated patients with acromegaly. Roelfsema, F., Frölich, M., Van Dulken, H. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Measurement of zinc, copper, manganese, and iron concentrations in hair of pituitary dwarfism patients using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Miki, F., Sakai, T., Wariishi, M., Kaji, M. Biological trace element research. (2002) [Pubmed]
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