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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in male germ cells: GM-CSF enhances sperm motility.

The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine capable of stimulating proliferation, maturation and function of hematopoietic cells. Receptors for this cytokine are composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, and are expressed on myeloid progenitors and mature mononuclear phagocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils, as well as in other nonhematopietic cells. We have recently demonstrated that bull spermatozoa express functional GM-CSF receptors that signal for increased glucose and Vitamin C uptake. In this study, we analyzed the expression of GM-CSF in bovine and human germ cells and its influence in bovine sperm motility. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that adult bovine and human testes expressed GM-CSF. In addition, immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of GM-CSF in the germ cell line in bovine and human testes. Computer-assisted evaluation of patterns of sperm motility demonstrated that the addition of GM-CSF enhances several parameters of sperm motility in the presence of glucose or fructose substrates.[1]


  1. Expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in male germ cells: GM-CSF enhances sperm motility. Vilanova, L.T., Rauch, M.C., Mansilla, A., Zambrano, A., Brito, M., Werner, E., Alfaro, V., Cox, J.F., Concha, I.I. Theriogenology (2003) [Pubmed]
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