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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Different effects of amlodipine and enalapril on the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway for induction of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation in vivo.

Although recent clinical trials have shown that amlodipine exerts antiatherogenic effects, the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. This study was designed to examine which signal transduction pathway might be important for the antiatherogenic property of amlodipine, as assessed by aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypes in hypertension in vivo. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were randomly treated with a vehicle, amlodipine, or enalapril while Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) used as controls were treated with only the vehicle. Both drugs were equally effective at reducing systolic blood pressure, and inhibiting the progression of aortic remodeling and fibrosis in comparison to those of vehicle-treated SHRSP. In the aortas of vehicle-treated SHRSP, the level of contractile-type smooth muscle (SM) myosin heavy chain (MHC) SM2 was significantly lower, whereas the level of synthetic-type MHC NMHC-B/SMemb was significantly higher compared with those in the WKY aortas. Compared to the vehicle-treated SHRSP group, both drugs significantly and equally shifted the aortic SMC phenotype in SHRSP toward the differentiated state by reducing NMHC-B/SMemb and increasing SM2. The levels of MKK6, p38 MAPK, MEK1 and p-42/44 ERK were significantly higher in the vehicle-treated SHRSP than in the WKY. Both drugs significantly reduced these values in the SHRSP aorta. Furthermore, the levels of MEK1 and p-42/44 ERK were significantly lower in the amlodipine- than in the enalapril-treated SHRSP group, whereas enalapril was more effective than amlodipine at increasing p-Akt and endothelial NO synthase in SHRSP aortas, which were significantly lower in the vehicle SHRSP group than in the WKY group. Thus, the MEK-ERK pathway might be one of the crucial determinants of the aortic SMC phenotype activated by amlodipine treatment of hypertension in vivo.[1]


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