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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression and inducibility of drug-metabolizing enzymes in novel murine liver epithelial cell lines and their ability to activate procarcinogens.

Four novel nontransformed epithelial cell lines, isolated from fetal or adult mouse liver, were tested: (a) to determine the profile of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes; (b) to evaluate the inducibility of the polysubstrate (cytochrome P-450-dependent) monooxygenase system by various classes of inducers; and (c) to assess the capacity of the cells to metabolize structurally different procarcinogens. With regard to the phase I pathway, the cells expressed various P-450 (class IA, IA2, IIB, IIE1, IIIA) and flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing monooxygenase-dependent bio-transformation enzyme activities at levels (in lines C2.8 and C6) comparable with those present in murine adult liver preparations. The expression of various P-450s was demonstrated also by immunoprecipitation assays using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. For the phase II pathway, cells expressed substantial levels of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione S-epoxide transferase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Low expression of epoxide hydrolase was observed. Induction of P-450 function by sodium phenobarbital, beta-naphthoflavone, isosafrole, ethanol, and pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile, monitored using specific P-450-linked activities, was considerably elevated (over 5-fold in class IIB with the C2.8 and C6 cell lines). The most competent C2.8 and C6 cell lines were able to activate benzo(a)pyrene, cyclophosphamide, dimethylnitrosamine, diethylstilbestrol, and 2-naphthylamine as shown by the significantly increased frequencies of mitotic gene conversion, mitotic crossing-over, and point [reverse] mutation in the diploid D7 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae after 4 [cyclophosphamide], 24 [benzo(a)pyrene,2-naphthylamine, dimethylnitrosamine] or 48 [diethylstilbestrol], h of exposure in the presence of 3 x 10(6) cells/flask. The degree of conservation and the inducibility of representative oxidative and postoxidative reactions in the novel epithelial cell lines C2.8 and C6, together with their ability to activate a wide spectrum of procarcinogens, offers a means to study the potential of chemicals for inducing DNA damage in short-term genotoxicity testing. In addition the cells may be suitable for analyzing the metabolic disposition of compounds and the multistage process of carcinogenesis.[1]


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