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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression of retinoid X receptors and COUP-TFI in a human salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell line.

The growth of the adenocarcinoma cell line derived from human salivary gland (HSG) is regulated by all-trans-retinoic acid (t-RA), which binds to its specific receptor, retinoic acid receptors (RARs), located in the nucleus, and thereby transactivates target genes. In this study, we examined the binding characteristics of the nuclear extract of HSG cells to the retinoic acid response element (RARE) compared with those of in vitro translated RAR alpha and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha), a heterodimeric partner of RAR alpha. Gel shift analysis using anti-RAR alpha and anti-RXR alpha antibodies revealed that the translated RAR alpha bound to RARE as a heterodimer with RXR alpha. In contrast, the binding of the nuclear extract of HSG cells to RARE showed a heterogeneous pattern, suggesting the existence of several species of RXRs as well as RARs in the nuclei of HSG cells. We therefore tried to clone these putative RXRs by the polymerase chain reaction using degenerated oligonucleotide primers conserved across the RXR family. The DNA sequencing of the recombinant clones revealed the expression of RXR alpha and RXR beta. In addition, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI), which is also an RXR family member, was cloned. To evaluate the transcriptional activity of RARs and RXRs endogenously expressed in HSG cells, we performed a transient transfection analysis. When HSG cells were transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing two repeats of either the RARE of the RAR beta gene or that of cellular retinol-binding protein II gene, positioned upstream of a thymidine kinase promoter fused to the luciferase sequence, a 2-3-fold induction of luciferase activity was observed in both cases. These results suggest that RARs and RXRs endogenously expressed in HSG cells were transcriptionally active in vivo. Thus, our findings showed that RXR alpha, RXR beta, and COUP-TFI are expressed in HSG cells and suggest that these molecules function as heterodimeric partners of RARs and (or) competitive repressors for RAREs and are involved in cellular responses mediated by retinoids.[1]


  1. Expression of retinoid X receptors and COUP-TFI in a human salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell line. Kyakumoto, S., Nemoto, T., Sato, N., Ota, M. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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