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Disease relevance of Herculin


High impact information on Herculin


Biological context of Herculin

  • A putative 27-kDa protein is encoded by three exons contained within a 1.7-kilobase fragment of the herculin gene [1].
  • In this work, we have initiated studies to identify DNA sequences that govern Myf-5 and MRF4 (herculin, myf-6) transcription [4].
  • Myogenin gene activity declined rapidly (t1/2: approximately 2 min), comparable to the rate of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) gene inactivation, while other myogenic bHLH genes either lost activity more slowly (MyoD) or not at all (myf5, herculin) [5].

Anatomical context of Herculin

  • On myotube formation, herculin reaches high levels; concomitantly, the epsilon subunit gene becomes a common MDF target and begins to be expressed [6].
  • Using a ribonuclease protection assay, we found that exponentially growing RMo myoblasts contained no detectable myogenin or herculin mRNA, while differentiating myoblasts contained high levels of myogenin mRNA but no herculin mRNA [7].

Gene context of Herculin

  • 2. Upon denervation, herculin mRNA remains essentially unchanged, myf5 transcript levels approximately double, and MyoD message is up-regulated by two- to fivefold [8].
  • 1. We have prepared probes specific for the chicken myogenic determination genes MyoD, myogenin, myf5, and herculin and have investigated the expression of these genes in response to denervation and acute electrical stimulation in neonate chick muscle, using ribonuclease protection [8].
  • RESULTS: The MCs in newborn mice possessed Id but did not express either protein herculin or myoD [9].
  • Four members, MyoD, myogenin, myf5 and MRF4/herculin/myf6, have been identified in higher vertebrates and have been shown to exhibit distinct but overlapping functions [10].


  1. Herculin, a fourth member of the MyoD family of myogenic regulatory genes. Miner, J.H., Wold, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. The muscle regulatory gene, Myf-6, has a biphasic pattern of expression during early mouse development. Bober, E., Lyons, G.E., Braun, T., Cossu, G., Buckingham, M., Arnold, H.H. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Hormones, growth factors, and myogenic differentiation. Florini, J.R., Ewton, D.Z., Magri, K.A. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolated sequences from the linked Myf-5 and MRF4 genes drive distinct patterns of muscle-specific expression in transgenic mice. Patapoutian, A., Miner, J.H., Lyons, G.E., Wold, B. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Control of myogenic factor genes by the membrane depolarization/protein kinase C cascade in chick skeletal muscle. Huang, C.F., Neville, C.M., Schmidt, J. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Interaction of MyoD family proteins with enhancers of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in vivo. Liu, S., Spinner, D.S., Schmidt, M.M., Danielsson, J.A., Wang, S., Schmidt, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of atrophy and contractions on myogenin mRNA concentration in chick and rat myoblast omega muscle cells. Krebs, J.M., Denney, R.M. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Response of myogenic determination factors to cessation and resumption of electrical activity in skeletal muscle: a possible role for myogenin in denervation supersensitivity. Neville, C.M., Schmidt, M., Schmidt, J. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of basic helix-loop-helix proteins in the glomeruli. Imabayashi, T., Iehara, N., Takeoka, H., Uematsu-Yanagita, M., Kataoka, H., Nishikawa, S., Sano, H., Yokode, M., Fukatsu, A., Kita, T., Doi, T. Clin. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation and functions of myogenic regulatory factors in lower vertebrates. Rescan, P.Y. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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