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Gene Review

Myf5  -  myogenic factor 5

Mus musculus

Synonyms: B130010J22Rik, Myf-5, Myogenic factor 5, bHLHc2
 
 
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Disease relevance of Myf5

 

High impact information on Myf5

 

Biological context of Myf5

  • This data implicates CD34 in the maintenance of satellite cell quiescence.In heterozygous Myf5(nlacZ/+) mice, all CD34(+ve) satellite cells also express beta-galactosidase, a marker of activation of Myf5, showing that quiescent satellite cells are committed to myogenesis [5].
  • We have used microarray and polymerase chain reaction approaches to measure the induction of muscle gene expression by MyoD and Myf5 in an in vitro model [6].
  • MyoD and Myf5 are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that play key but redundant roles in specifying myogenic progenitors during embryogenesis [6].
  • We propose that the first phase of Myf5 epaxial expression, driven by the early epaxial enhancer in the dermomyotome, is necessary for early myotome formation, while the subsequent phases are associated with cytodifferentiation within the myotome [7].
  • In the mouse limb bud, the Msx1(nlacZ )transgene is downregulated prior to the activation of the Myf5 gene, an early marker of myogenic differentiation [8].
 

Anatomical context of Myf5

  • Genetic studies have demonstrated that MyoD and Myf5 establish the skeletal muscle lineage, whereas myogenin mediates terminal differentiation, yet the molecular basis for this distinction is not understood [9].
  • Together, these results support the notion that Myf5 functions toward myoblast proliferation, whereas MyoD prepares myoblasts for efficient differentiation [6].
  • Here we describe two novel markers of quiescent satellite cells: CD34, an established marker of hematopoietic stem cells, and Myf5, the earliest marker of myogenic commitment [5].
  • Myf5 expression is correctly initiated but becomes restricted to the caudal region of each somite [10].
  • Shh is not required for the activation of Myf5 and MyoD at any of the other sites of myogenesis in the mouse embryo, including the hypaxial dermomyotomal cells that give rise to the abdominal and body wall muscles, or the myogenic progenitor cells that form the limb and head muscles [11].
 

Associations of Myf5 with chemical compounds

  • This distinction between MyoD and Myf5 results from a novel and unanticipated cooperation between the MyoD NH2- and COOH-terminal regions [6].
  • Unlike wild-type myogenic precursor cells, Myf5-null cells do not express the alpha6beta1 integrin, a laminin receptor, suggesting that integrin alpha6beta1-laminin interactions are required for myotomal laminin matrix assembly [12].
  • We report here that retinoic acid (RA) reduces the level of Myf5 message in both mouse C2 and rat L6 cell lines, probably at the transcriptional level, because Myf5 mRNA stability is not affected by RA [13].
  • 9-cis-retinoic acid regulates the expression of the muscle determination gene Myf5 [13].
  • This repression is dose dependent, starting at 0.1 microM of all-trans RA, and is not abrogated by cycloheximide, suggesting a direct involvement of RA receptors in the control of Myf5 expression [13].
 

Physical interactions of Myf5

 

Regulatory relationships of Myf5

  • Sonic hedgehog controls epaxial muscle determination through Myf5 activation [11].
  • Pax3 lies genetically upstream of MyoD and has also been shown recently to directly control Myf5 transcription in derivatives of the hypaxial somite, where it also plays an important role in ensuring cell survival [15].
  • This possibility was first raised by the observation that the most severe MRF4 knockout allele expresses no Myf-5 RNA and is a developmental phenocopy of the Myf-5 null mutation [16].
  • Myf5 is the first gene to be expressed followed by myogenin, myoD, and myf6, in this order [17].
  • As 9-cis RA is about 10 times more efficient than all-trans RA in repressing Myf5, whereas TTNPB, which preferentially activates RA receptors, is far less potent, our data provide evidence for an important role of ligand-bound retinoid X-receptors in the mediation of this inhibition [13].
  • Six1/4 therefore regulate Myf5 transcription, together with Pax3, which was previously shown to be required for the activity of the 145-bp element [18].
 

Other interactions of Myf5

  • Homozygous mice carrying the disrupted Myf-6 gene show pronounced down-regulation of Myf-5 transcription for reasons presently unknown [19].
  • We also showed that the endogenous neuronal differentiation program is inhibited under the influence of either ectopic mouse Myf5 or MyoD [20].
  • Myogenin can substitute for Myf5 in promoting myogenesis but less efficiently [21].
  • At Theiler stage 17 (day 10.5 post coitum) of development, strongly altered expression patterns of Pax3 and Myf5 were observed in dorsal somite regions indicating that the dorsal myotome and dermomyotome were not differentiating properly [22].
  • We conclude, therefore, that Shh has multiple functions in the somite, including inductive functions in the activation of Myf5, leading to the determination of epaxial dermomyotomal cells to myogenesis, as well as trophic functions in the maintenance of cell survival in the sclerotome and adjacent neural tube [11].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Myf5

References

  1. Hypoxia inhibits myogenic differentiation through accelerated MyoD degradation. Di Carlo, A., De Mori, R., Martelli, F., Pompilio, G., Capogrossi, M.C., Germani, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Phenotyping transgenic embryos: a rapid 3-D screening method based on episcopic fluorescence image capturing. Weninger, W.J., Mohun, T. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Myf-5 revisited: loss of early myotome formation does not lead to a rib phenotype in homozygous Myf-5 mutant mice. Kaul, A., Köster, M., Neuhaus, H., Braun, T. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Redefining the genetic hierarchies controlling skeletal myogenesis: Pax-3 and Myf-5 act upstream of MyoD. Tajbakhsh, S., Rocancourt, D., Cossu, G., Buckingham, M. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of CD34 and Myf5 defines the majority of quiescent adult skeletal muscle satellite cells. Beauchamp, J.R., Heslop, L., Yu, D.S., Tajbakhsh, S., Kelly, R.G., Wernig, A., Buckingham, M.E., Partridge, T.A., Zammit, P.S. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. MyoD induces myogenic differentiation through cooperation of its NH2- and COOH-terminal regions. Ishibashi, J., Perry, R.L., Asakura, A., Rudnicki, M.A. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The early epaxial enhancer is essential for the initial expression of the skeletal muscle determination gene Myf5 but not for subsequent, multiple phases of somitic myogenesis. Teboul, L., Hadchouel, J., Daubas, P., Summerbell, D., Buckingham, M., Rigby, P.W. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The homeobox gene Msx1 is expressed in a subset of somites, and in muscle progenitor cells migrating into the forelimb. Houzelstein, D., Auda-Boucher, G., Chéraud, Y., Rouaud, T., Blanc, I., Tajbakhsh, S., Buckingham, M.E., Fontaine-Pérus, J., Robert, B. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Two domains of MyoD mediate transcriptional activation of genes in repressive chromatin: a mechanism for lineage determination in myogenesis. Gerber, A.N., Klesert, T.R., Bergstrom, D.A., Tapscott, S.J. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Six1 and Six4 homeoproteins are required for Pax3 and Mrf expression during myogenesis in the mouse embryo. Grifone, R., Demignon, J., Houbron, C., Souil, E., Niro, C., Seller, M.J., Hamard, G., Maire, P. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Sonic hedgehog controls epaxial muscle determination through Myf5 activation. Borycki, A.G., Brunk, B., Tajbakhsh, S., Buckingham, M., Chiang, C., Emerson, C.P. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Integrin {alpha}6{beta}1-laminin interactions regulate early myotome formation in the mouse embryo. Bajanca, F., Luz, M., Raymond, K., Martins, G.G., Sonnenberg, A., Tajbakhsh, S., Buckingham, M., Thorsteinsdóttir, S. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. 9-cis-retinoic acid regulates the expression of the muscle determination gene Myf5. Carnac, G., Albagli-Curiel, O., Levin, A., Bonnieu, A. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Gli2 and Gli3 have redundant and context-dependent function in skeletal muscle formation. McDermott, A., Gustafsson, M., Elsam, T., Hui, C.C., Emerson, C.P., Borycki, A.G. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Myogenic progenitor cells in the mouse embryo are marked by the expression of Pax3/7 genes that regulate their survival and myogenic potential. Buckingham, M., Bajard, L., Daubas, P., Esner, M., Lagha, M., Relaix, F., Rocancourt, D. Anat. Embryol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Different MRF4 knockout alleles differentially disrupt Myf-5 expression: cis-regulatory interactions at the MRF4/Myf-5 locus. Yoon, J.K., Olson, E.N., Arnold, H.H., Wold, B.J. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Muscle cell differentiation of embryonic stem cells reflects myogenesis in vivo: developmentally regulated expression of myogenic determination genes and functional expression of ionic currents. Rohwedel, J., Maltsev, V., Bober, E., Arnold, H.H., Hescheler, J., Wobus, A.M. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Six proteins regulate the activation of Myf5 expression in embryonic mouse limbs. Giordani, J., Bajard, L., Demignon, J., Daubas, P., Buckingham, M., Maire, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Inactivation of Myf-6 and Myf-5 genes in mice leads to alterations in skeletal muscle development. Braun, T., Arnold, H.H. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Ectopic Myf5 or MyoD prevents the neuronal differentiation program in addition to inducing skeletal muscle differentiation, in the chick neural tube. Delfini, M.C., Duprez, D. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Myogenin can substitute for Myf5 in promoting myogenesis but less efficiently. Wang, Y., Jaenisch, R. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Severe defects in the formation of epaxial musculature in open brain (opb) mutant mouse embryos. Spörle, R., Günther, T., Struwe, M., Schughart, K. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Myf5 is a novel early axonal marker in the mouse brain and is subjected to post-transcriptional regulation in neurons. Daubas, P., Tajbakhsh, S., Hadchouel, J., Primig, M., Buckingham, M. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. MyoD expression marks the onset of skeletal myogenesis in Myf-5 mutant mice. Braun, T., Bober, E., Rudnicki, M.A., Jaenisch, R., Arnold, H.H. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. A BAC transgenic analysis of the Mrf4/Myf5 locus reveals interdigitated elements that control activation and maintenance of gene expression during muscle development. Carvajal, J.J., Cox, D., Summerbell, D., Rigby, P.W. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
 
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