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Gene Review

Pth2  -  parathyroid hormone 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Parathyroid hormone 2, TIP39, Tifp39, Tip39, Tipf39, ...
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Disease relevance of Tifp39

  • Furthermore, we observed that TIP39 elevates intracellular calcium levels in primary dorsal root ganglion neurons whereas the peptide inactive on PTH2R do not, suggesting that TIP39 may activate these neurons important for nociception in vivo through PTH2R-dependent mechanisms [1].

High impact information on Tifp39

  • Our data suggest that TIP39 released from supraspinal fibers potentiates aspects of nociception within the spinal cord [2].
  • In the mouse, an approximately 4.5-kb mRNA encoding TIP39 was identified by Northern blot analysis in testis and, less abundantly, in liver and kidney, whereas other tissues revealed additional smaller transcripts [3].
  • The TIP39 precursor is encoded by at least three exons; a noncoding exon U1, exon 1 encoding residues -61 (initiator methionine) to -19 of the leader sequence, and exon 2 encoding residues -18 to -1 and residues +1 to +39 [3].
  • In situ hybridizations revealed TIP39 expression in seminiferous tubuli and several brain regions, including nucleus ruber, nucleus centralis pontis, and nucleus subparafascicularis thalami [3].
  • Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39): molecular structure and activity for parathyroid hormone 2 receptor [1].

Biological context of Tifp39

  • Because PTH2 receptor expression was previously shown to be highest in brain, pancreas, and testis, our findings are consistent with the notion that TIP39 is a neuropeptide which may also have a role in spermatogenesis [3].
  • To find out possible sites of this ligand interaction in the organism, we identified the genes encoding the TIP39 protein precursors of Homo sapiens and Mus musculus in the databases of the human and mouse genome projects respectively [4].

Anatomical context of Tifp39


  1. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39): molecular structure and activity for parathyroid hormone 2 receptor. Della Penna, K., Kinose, F., Sun, H., Koblan, K.S., Wang, H. Neuropharmacology (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Anatomical and physiological evidence for involvement of tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues in nociception. Dobolyi, A., Ueda, H., Uchida, H., Palkovits, M., Usdin, T.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification and characterization of the murine and human gene encoding the tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues. John, M.R., Arai, M., Rubin, D.A., Jonsson, K.B., Jüppner, H. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of the human and mouse genes encoding the tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues, a ligand of the parathyroid hormone receptor family. Hansen, I.A., Jakob, O., Wortmann, S., Arzberger, T., Allolio, B., Blind, E. J. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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