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Gene Review

Ins2  -  insulin 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Ins-2, Insulin-2
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Disease relevance of Ins2

  • Hypoglycemia (for 3 h) caused significant decreases in pancreatic content of mRNAs for insulin 2 and GLUT-2 to 55 and 34% of control values, respectively [1].

High impact information on Ins2


Biological context of Ins2

  • Insulin gene expression was measured by an assay based on a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, to determine whether the ancestral rodent insulin 2 genes (and the human homologue in the NHI-6F cells) are regulated differently from the duplicated rat and mouse insulin 1 genes [7].
  • DMAQ-B1 did not affect glucose tolerance (glucose AUC = 21,300) but reduced fasting insulin 2-fold and insulin AUC (insulin AUC = 4300) [8].

Anatomical context of Ins2

  • Other imprinted genes within the imprinted gene cluster-insulin II (Ins2), Mash2 (which codes for a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor), and Kvlqt1 (coding for a component of a potassium transport channel)-showed no consistently different expression from that seen in normal hepatocytes [9].
  • The effect of high glucose on mesangial cell actin was reversed by returning the cells to normal glucose for 2 days, stimulation with insulin 2 micrograms/ml, or with a protein kinase C inhibitor [10].

Associations of Ins2 with chemical compounds

  • Some diabetic rats received a single dose (4 IU, s.c.) of NPH insulin 2 h before an intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 750 microg) or saline [11].

Other interactions of Ins2

  • Simultaneously, we have shown the attenuation of liver sensitivity to insulin 2 hours after higher leptin dose injection [12].


  1. Hypoglycemia but not hyperglycemia induces rapid changes in pancreatic beta-cell gene transcription. Giddings, S.J., Carnaghi, L.R., Shalwitz, R.A. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Long interspersed repeated DNA (LINE) causes polymorphism at the rat insulin 1 locus. Lakshmikumaran, M.S., D'Ambrosio, E., Laimins, L.A., Lin, D.T., Furano, A.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Insulin-mediated modifications of myocardial lipoprotein lipase and lipoprotein metabolism. O'Looney, P., Vander Maten, M., Vahouny, G.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Endocrine effects of relaxin overexpression in mice. Feng, S., Bogatcheva, N.V., Kamat, A.A., Truong, A., Agoulnik, A.I. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. An identification method for altered proteins in tissues utilizing fluorescence derivatization, liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and a database-searching algorithm. Toriumi, C., Imai, K. Anal. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Insulin produces a growth hormone-like increase in intracellular free calcium concentration in okadaic acid-treated adipocytes. Gaur, S., Schwartz, Y., Tai, L.R., Frick, G.P., Goodman, H.M. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential expression of non-allelic insulin genes in rodent islet tumour cells. Lund, K., Blume, N., Michelsen, B.K., Bucchini, D., Madsen, O.D. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Therapeutic actions of an insulin receptor activator and a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist in the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat model of metabolic syndrome X. Velliquette, R.A., Friedman, J.E., Shao, J., Zhang, B.B., Ernsberger, P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Alterations in specific gene expression and focal neoplastic growth during spontaneous hepatocarcinogenesis in albumin-SV40 T antigen transgenic rats. Dragan, Y.P., Sargent, L.M., Babcock, K., Kinunen, N., Pitot, H.C. Mol. Carcinog. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. High glucose alters actin assembly in glomerular mesangial and epithelial cells. Zhou, X., Hurst, R.D., Templeton, D., Whiteside, C.I. Lab. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of insulin on PGE2 generation during LPS-induced lung inflammation in rats. Alba-Loureiro, T.C., Martins, E.F., Landgraf, R.G., Jancar, S., Curi, R., Sannomiya, P. Life Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Acute leptin action on insulin blood level and liver insulin receptor in the rat. Nowak, K.W., Maćkowiak, P., Nogowski, L., Szkudelski, T., Malendowicz, L.K. Life Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
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