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Gene Review

Ins1  -  insulin 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Ins-1, Insulin-1
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Disease relevance of Ins1


High impact information on Ins1


Chemical compound and disease context of Ins1


Biological context of Ins1


Anatomical context of Ins1

  • Studies of glucose uptake in muscle and liver cell lines verified that the zinc-free insulin was biologically active [1].
  • It has been identified that insulin was present in the central nervous system (CNS) with some types of action there, and it exerted important actions within the brain and functions as neuropeptide [17].
  • It was found that insulin could bind with IR at the membrane of the neurons, and IR distribute not only on the somas, but also on the neurites [17].
  • Insulin induced a 20% reduction at 10(-6) mol/l, but remained without effect at 10(-7) mol/l. Insulin-like growth factor-I provoked a 30% decrease at 5.10(-9) mol/l. It is concluded that the type-I insulin-like growth factor receptors on pancreatic Beta cells mediate a suppressive action on the insulin release process [18].
  • Dynamic time-course studies of the spontaneously diabetic BB Wistar rat. II. Insulin-, glucagon-, and somatostatin-reactive cells in the pancreas [19].

Associations of Ins1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Ins1

  • HepG2 cells were firstly selected to be the model for methodological study, the results showed that insulin could bind with IR at the membrane of the studied cells after incubated 1 minute with the cells [17].

Regulatory relationships of Ins1

  • CONCLUSIONS: Insulin suppresses glucagon-stimulated HGP in normal and sham-operated rats, and this reduction in HGP is associated with a decrease in the membrane-bound quantity of GLUT-2 [26].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Insulin induces both nitric oxide and endothelin-1 activity in rat cremaster first-order arterioles [27].
  • 2) Insulin stimulated the expression of CNPase and G3PDH in culture [28].
  • RESULTS: Insulin and oxidant stress each significantly stimulate Egr-1 protein expression [29].

Other interactions of Ins1

  • The aim of the present work was to study the effect of nutritional rehabilitation with different concentration of dietary protein (6, 18 or 50%) of previously undernourished rats on serum Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins levels (IGFBPs) [30].
  • However, an additive effect of nicotine pretreatment on insulin stimulation was only observed on p44/42-MAPK [31].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Insulin-mediated vasoreactivity of isolated resistance arteries of the rat cremaster muscle to insulin (4 to 3400 microU/mL) was studied in the absence and presence of TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL) [32].
  • The insulin 1, but not the insulin 2, locus is polymorphic (i.e., exhibits allelic variation) in rats [16].
  • 1) Insulin increases the steady state number of cell surface IGF-II receptors by 7-13-fold without affecting receptor affinity; however, insulin stimulates glucose transport activity by 25-40-fold [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ins1


  1. Zinc, Not Insulin, Regulates the Rat {alpha}-Cell Response to Hypoglycemia In Vivo. Zhou, H., Zhang, T., Harmon, J.S., Bryan, J., Robertson, R.P. Diabetes (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats With Rosiglitazone and/or Enalapril Restores Balance Between Vasodilator and Vasoconstrictor Actions of Insulin With Simultaneous Improvement in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance. Potenza, M.A., Marasciulo, F.L., Tarquinio, M., Quon, M.J., Montagnani, M. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Rapid mobilization of Ca2+ from rat insulinoma microsomes by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate. Prentki, M., Biden, T.J., Janjic, D., Irvine, R.F., Berridge, M.J., Wollheim, C.B. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Neuronal SH2B1 is essential for controlling energy and glucose homeostasis. Ren, D., Zhou, Y., Morris, D., Li, M., Li, Z., Rui, L. J. Clin. Invest. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Transgenic mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-II in beta cells develop type 2 diabetes. Devedjian, J.C., George, M., Casellas, A., Pujol, A., Visa, J., Pelegrín, M., Gros, L., Bosch, F. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The role of Fas in autoimmune diabetes. Chervonsky, A.V., Wang, Y., Wong, F.S., Visintin, I., Flavell, R.A., Janeway, C.A., Matis, L.A. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Insulin resistance in uremia. Characterization of lipid metabolism in freshly isolated and primary cultures of hepatocytes from chronic uremic rats. Caro, J.F., Lanza-Jacoby, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Hyperinsulinemia instead of insulin resistance induces baroreflex dysfunction in chronic insulin-infused rats. Hong, L.Z., Hsieh, P.S. Am. J. Hypertens. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of amino acids, hormones and drugs on insulin release and 45Ca uptake by transplantable rat insulinoma cells maintained in tissue culture. Swanston-Flatt, S.K., Flatt, P.R. Gen. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Insulin resistance induced by sucrose feeding in rats is due to an impairment of the hepatic parasympathetic nerves. Ribeiro, R.T., Lautt, W.W., Legare, D.J., Macedo, M.P. Diabetologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of a viral gene in insulin-producing cell lines renders them susceptible to immunological destruction. Shibata, M., Puga, A., Salata, K.F., Bachurski, C.J., Lerman, M.I., Notkins, A.L. Diabetologia (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Somatostatin gene upstream enhancer element activated by a protein complex consisting of CREB, Isl-1-like, and alpha-CBF-like transcription factors. Vallejo, M., Penchuk, L., Habener, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic map of 12 polymorphic loci on rat chromosome 1. Goldmuntz, E.A., Remmers, E.F., Zha, H., Cash, J.M., Mathern, P., Crofford, L.J., Wilder, R.L. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Different dependence of lithium and valproate on PI3K/PKB pathway. Mora, A., Sabio, G., Alonso, J.C., Soler, G., Centeno, F. Bipolar disorders. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Improvement of rat liver graft function by insulin administration to donor. Morimoto, Y., Kamiike, W., Nishida, T., Hatanaka, N., Shimizu, S., Huang, T.P., Hamada, E., Uchiyama, Y., Yoshida, Y., Furuya, E., Matsuda, H. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Long interspersed repeated DNA (LINE) causes polymorphism at the rat insulin 1 locus. Lakshmikumaran, M.S., D'Ambrosio, E., Laimins, L.A., Lin, D.T., Furano, A.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Imaging on the binding of FITC-Insulin with Insulin Receptors in cortical neurons of Rat. Luo, Y., Xu, H., Huang, K., Zhang, Z., Luo, Q., Liu, Q. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Direct effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I on the secretory activity of rat pancreatic beta cells. Van Schravendijk, C.F., Heylen, L., Van den Brande, J.L., Pipeleers, D.G. Diabetologia (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Dynamic time-course studies of the spontaneously diabetic BB Wistar rat. II. Insulin-, glucagon-, and somatostatin-reactive cells in the pancreas. Tannenbaum, G.S., Colle, E., Wanamaker, L., Gurd, W., Goldman, H., Seemayer, T.A. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. C16:0 Sulfatide Inhibits Insulin Secretion in Rat {beta}-Cells by Reducing the Sensitivity of KATP Channels to ATP Inhibition. Buschard, K., Blomqvist, M., M??nsson, J.E., Fredman, P., Juhl, K., Gromada, J. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. In situ Akt phosphorylation in the nucleus tractus solitarii is involved in central control of blood pressure and heart rate. Huang, H.N., Lu, P.J., Lo, W.C., Lin, C.H., Hsiao, M., Tseng, C.J. Circulation (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of insulin binding in the UMR-106 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell. Ituarte, E.A., Ituarte, H.G., Iida-Klein, A., Hahn, T.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Stimulation by glucocorticoids of protein degradation in hepatocyte monolayers. Hopgood, M.F., Clark, M.G., Ballard, F.J. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Insulin stimulates endogenous angiotensin II production via a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Tuck, M.L., Bounoua, F., Eslami, P., Nyby, M.D., Eggena, P., Corry, D.B. J. Hypertens. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced activation of activating transcription factor 6 decreases insulin gene expression via up-regulation of orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner. Seo, H.Y., Kim, Y.D., Lee, K.M., Min, A.K., Kim, M.K., Kim, H.S., Won, K.C., Park, J.Y., Lee, K.U., Choi, H.S., Park, K.G., Lee, I.K. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  26. Insulin regulation of hepatic glucose transporter protein is impaired in chronic pancreatitis. Andersen, D.K., Ruiz, C.L., Burant, C.F. Ann. Surg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Physiological concentrations of insulin induce endothelin-mediated vasoconstriction during inhibition of NOS or PI3-kinase in skeletal muscle arterioles. Eringa, E.C., Stehouwer, C.D., Merlijn, T., Westerhof, N., Sipkema, P. Cardiovasc. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) on oligodendrocyte-enriched glial cultures. van der Pal, R.H., Koper, J.W., van Golde, L.M., Lopes-Cardozo, M. J. Neurosci. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Early growth response gene-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells effects of insulin and oxidant stress. Wang, C.C., Sharma, G., Draznin, B. Am. J. Hypertens. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation of undernourished rats on serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding proteins. Tovar, A.R., Halhali, A., Torres, N. Rev. Invest. Clin. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Chronic nicotine exposure enhances insulin-induced mitogenic signaling via up-regulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptors in isolated rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Wada, T., Naito, M., Kenmochi, H., Tsuneki, H., Sasaoka, T. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Physiological concentrations of insulin induce endothelin-dependent vasoconstriction of skeletal muscle resistance arteries in the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha dependence on c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Eringa, E.C., Stehouwer, C.D., Walburg, K., Clark, A.D., van Nieuw Amerongen, G.P., Westerhof, N., Sipkema, P. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Characterization of the stimulatory action of insulin on insulin-like growth factor II binding to rat adipose cells. Differences in the mechanism of insulin action on insulin-like growth factor II receptors and glucose transporters. Appell, K.C., Simpson, I.A., Cushman, S.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Antioxidant effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in rats with advanced liver cirrhosis. García-Fernández, M., Castilla-Cortázar, I., Díaz-Sanchez, M., Navarro, I., Puche, J.E., Castilla, A., Casares, A.D., Clavijo, E., González-Barón, S. BMC gastroenterology [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Tricyclic antidepressant imipramine reduces the insulin secretory rate in islet cells of Wistar albino rats through a calcium antagonistic action. Antoine, M.H., Gall, D., Schiffmann, S.N., Lebrun, P. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. The potentiating influences of insulin on pancreozymin-induced hyperpolarization and amylase release in the pancreatic acinar cell. Kanno, T., Saito, A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1976) [Pubmed]
  37. Insulin in University of Wisconsin solution exacerbates the ischemic injury and decreases the graft survival rate in rat liver transplantation. Li, X.L., Man, K., Liu, Y.F., Lee, T.K., Tsui, S.H., Lau, C.K., Lo, C.M., Fan, S.T. Transplantation (2003) [Pubmed]
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