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Gene Review

PPY  -  pancreatic polypeptide

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of PPY

  • 4. Intense hypoxia caused a pronounced increase in the concentration of PP in the arterial plasma [1].
  • The pancreatic responses in AM and iNOS may play a major role in mediating prolonged disturbances in nutrient use by tissues through their influences on temporal patterns of pancreatic hormone secretion during chronic illness [2].
  • Distinct localization of FMRFamide- and bovine pancreatic polypeptide-like material in the brain, retrocerebral complex and suboesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana L [3].
  • Hamartomatous polyp in adult oxyntic mucosa, hyperplastic oxyntic mucosa in Menetrier's disease and atrophic oxyntic mucosa in a remnant stomach with cancer showed scattered glucagon-glicentin cells, but few or no cells containing bovine pancreatic polypeptide [4].

High impact information on PPY


Chemical compound and disease context of PPY


Biological context of PPY


Anatomical context of PPY


Associations of PPY with chemical compounds

  • Immunostained serial sections and cross-absorption experiments with related peptides, including avian and bovine pancreatic polypeptide and peptide tyrosine tyrosine, excluded any cross-reactivity [15].
  • Neither glucose nor mixed amino acids were found to affect the release of pancreatic polypeptide either at rest or during nerve stimulation [16].
  • 5. closely similar changes in plasma PP concentration were observed in suckled and unsuckled 24-h-old calves in response to 2-deoxyglucose, in spite of the higher plasma glucose concentration in the former group [17].
  • 6. Acetylcholine also promoted the release of the pancreatic hormones glucagon, insulin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) [18].
  • 6. These results suggest that the primary defect that leads to the development of this diabetic syndrome in cortisol-treated thyroidectomized calves is failure of insulin release but that this is associated with consequential changes in the rates at which both glucagon and PP are released from the pancreas [19].

Other interactions of PPY

  • Presynaptic inhibitory effects of the peptides NPY, PYY and PP on nicotinic EPSPs in guinea-pig gastric myenteric neurones [20].
  • To characterize the structure of these solubilized receptors, the chemical cross-linker N-(5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxy)succinimide was used to covalently bind these receptors to radiolabeled PP, and the resulting PP-receptor complexes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [13].
  • Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide and pancreatic polypeptide in rabbit intestine [21].
  • Each form of stimulation provoked release of glucagon, insulin and pancreatic polypeptide from the pancreas and produced a small but significant rise in mean arterial plasma glucose concentration [22].
  • Exogenous bovine pancreatic polypeptide caused little change in gastric secretion and serum gastrin but resulted in a profound suppression of pancreatic secretion [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PPY


  1. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the control of glucagon, insulin and pancreatic polypeptide release from the pancreas. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V., Hardy, R.N. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Underlying disease stress augments plasma and tissue adrenomedullin (AM) responses to endotoxin: colocalized increases in AM and inducible nitric oxide synthase within pancreatic islets. Elsasser, T.H., Sartin, J.L., Martínez, A., Kahl, S., Montuenga, L., Pío, R., Fayer, R., Miller, M.J., Cuttitta, F. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Distinct localization of FMRFamide- and bovine pancreatic polypeptide-like material in the brain, retrocerebral complex and suboesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana L. Verhaert, P., Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J., De Loof, A. Brain Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunohistochemical studies on glucagon, glicentin and pancreatic polypeptide in human stomach: normal and pathological conditions. Tsutsumi, Y. Histochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Pancreatic polypeptide enhances postcontractile gallbladder filling in the prairie dog. Conter, R.L., Roslyn, J.J., DenBesten, L., Taylor, I.L. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of motilin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide on the migrating myoelectric complex in pig and dog. Bueno, L., Fioramonti, J., Rayner, V., Ruckebusch, Y. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunocytochemical demonstration of a homology in peptidergic neurosecretory cells in the suboesophageal ganglion of a beetle and a locust with antisera to bovine pancreatic polypeptide, FMRFamide, vasopressin and alpha-MSH. Veenstra, J.A. Neurosci. Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of the Y1 receptor in the regulation of neuropeptide Y-mediated feeding: comparison of wild-type, Y1 receptor-deficient, and Y5 receptor-deficient mice. Kanatani, A., Mashiko, S., Murai, N., Sugimoto, N., Ito, J., Fukuroda, T., Fukami, T., Morin, N., MacNeil, D.J., Van der Ploeg, L.H., Saga, Y., Nishimura, S., Ihara, M. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Pancreatic polypeptide: identification of target tissues using an in vivo radioreceptor assay. Shetzline, M.A., Zipf, W.B., Nishikawara, M.T. Peptides (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Nucleophilic and general acid catalysis at physiological pH by a designed miniature esterase. Nicoll, A.J., Allemann, R.K. Org. Biomol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis of pancreatic polypeptide-like peptides with special reference to presence of neuropeptide Y in central and peripheral neurons. Lundberg, J.M., Terenius, L., Hökfelt, T., Tatemoto, K. J. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunocytochemical evidence for a substance related to the bovine pancreatic polypeptide-peptide YY group of peptides in the human fetal gastrointestinal tract. Leduque, P., Paulin, C., Dubois, P.M. Regul. Pept. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Solubilization of receptors for pancreatic polypeptide from rat liver membranes. Nguyen, T.D., Wolfe, M.S., Heintz, G.G. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of bovine pancreatic polypeptide on the opossum lower esophageal sphincter. Rattan, S., Goyal, R.K. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in the dogfish gastroenteropancreatic tract: light and electron microscopical study. Cimini, V., van Noorden, S., Sansone, M. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of certain metabolites on pancreatic endocrine responses to stimulation of the vagus nerves in conscious calves. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Developmental changes in pancreatic endocrine function in the young calf. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Endocrine responses to intra-aortic infusions of acetylcholine in conscious calves. Jones, C.T., Edwards, A.V., Bloom, S.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Pancreatic endocrine function in cortisol-treated thyroidectomized calves. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V., Fielding, A.S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Presynaptic inhibitory effects of the peptides NPY, PYY and PP on nicotinic EPSPs in guinea-pig gastric myenteric neurones. Schemann, M., Tamura, K. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide and pancreatic polypeptide in rabbit intestine. Camilleri, M., Cooper, B.T., Adrian, T.E., Bloom, S.R., Chadwick, V.S. Gut (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Neuroendocrine responses to stimulation of the vagus nerves in bursts in conscious calves. Adrian, T.E., Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of pancreatic polypeptide and its C-terminal hexapeptide on meal and secretin induced pancreatic secretion in dogs. Chance, R.E., Cieszkowski, M., Jaworek, J., Konturek, S.J., Swierczek, J., Tasler, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibition of pancreas and gallbladder by pancreatic polypeptide. Greenberg, G.R., McCloy, R.F., Adrian, T.E., Chadwick, V.S., Baron, J.H., Bloom, S.R. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Pharmacokinetics of pancreatic polypeptide in man. Adrian, T.E., Greenberg, G.R., Besterman, H.S., Bloom, S.R. Gut (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Pancreatic polypeptide and other hormones in pancreas of obese (ob/ob) mice. Tomita, T., Doull, V., Kimmel, J.R., Pollock, H.G. Diabetologia (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Pancreatic polypeptide-like immunoreactive nerves in the guinea pig eye. Stone, R.A., Laties, A.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
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