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Gene Review

INS  -  insulin

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of INS

  • Also their application for the determination of zinc in insulin to control injection quality and magnesium in human urine for the diagnosis and treatment of magnesium deficiency was shown [1].

High impact information on INS


Biological context of INS


Associations of INS with chemical compounds

  • The same increase in dietary protein increased (P less than 0.05) both insulin (INS) and thyroxine (T4) and decreased (P less than 0.05) triiodothyronine (T3) [8].
  • 3. Insulin significantly enhanced enzyme activity when added to the culture medium at a 10(-9) M concentration, and a small stimulating effect was also observed with 10(-6) M dexamethasone [9].
  • 3. Insulin decreased the incorporation of the infused glutamine amide-15N into urinary uric acid as well as the excretion of other N-derived urinary uric acid (P less than 0.05), which resulted in a significant decrease in total urinary uric acid (P less than 0.05) [10].
  • EGF, IGF-I (Insulin-like Growth Factor-I), or PDGF (Platelet-derived Growth Factor) alone increased [3H]thymidine incorporation in the cells [11].


  1. Application of alkaline phosphatases from different sources in pharmaceutical and clinical analysis for the determination of their cofactors; zinc and magnesium ions. Muginova, S.V., Zhavoronkova, A.M., Polyakov, A.E., Shekhovtsova, T.N. Analytical sciences : the international journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Triiodothyronine stimulates transcription of the fatty acid synthase gene in chick embryo hepatocytes in culture. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor amplify that effect. Stapleton, S.R., Mitchell, D.A., Salati, L.M., Goodridge, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. S-myotrophin promotes the hypertrophy of myotube as insulin-like growth factor-I does. Hayashi, T., Ogawa, T., Sato, M., Tsuchida, N., Fotovati, A., Iwamoto, H., Ikeuchi, Y., Cassens, R.G., Ito, T. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Developmental Changes of Plasma Insulin, Glucagon, Insulin-like Growth Factors, Thyroid Hormones, and Glucose Concentrations in Chick Embryos and Hatched Chicks. Lu, J.W., McMurtry, J.P., Coon, C.N. Poult. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the insulin gene with chicken early growth and fat deposition. Qiu, F.F., Nie, Q.H., Luo, C.L., Zhang, D.X., Lin, S.M., Zhang, X.Q. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Immunohistochemical localization of insulin-like growth factor I and II in the endocrine pancreas of birds, reptiles, and amphibia. Reinecke, M., Broger, I., Brun, R., Zapf, J., Maake, C. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Hormonal regulation of glycogen metabolism in hepatocyte suspensions isolated from chicken embryos. Picardo, M., Dickson, A.J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Energy and protein relations in the broiler. 5. Lipogenesis, glucose production and metabolic hormone levels as functions of age and dietary protein levels. Rosebrough, R., McMurtry, J., Steele, N. Growth. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in primary culture of chicken hepatocytes. Influence of insulin, glucocorticoid, fatty acids and cordycepin. Legrand, P., Catheline, D., Hannetel, J.M., Lemarchal, P. Int. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of insulin on excretion and retention of infused glutamine amide-N in chickens (Gallus domesticus). Karasawa, Y., Koh, K. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Behavior of embryonic chick heart cells in culture. 2. Cellular responses to epidermal growth factor and other growth signals. Lau, C.L. Tissue & cell. (1993) [Pubmed]
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