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Gene Review

UL21  -  interacts with microtubules

Human herpesvirus 1

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Disease relevance of UL21


High impact information on UL21

  • A viral deletion mutant (delta UL21) that lacked the sequences encoding 484 of the predicted first 535 amino acids of the UL21 open reading frame was genetically engineered and studied with respect to its phenotype in cells in culture [1].
  • (iii) Immunofluorescence studies localized the UL21 antigen primarily in brightly staining granules in the cytoplasms of infected cells [1].
  • (ii) To characterize the UL21 protein, we immunized rabbits against a purified bacterial fusion protein consisting of glutathione S-transferase fused to the majority of the coding domain of the UL21 gene [1].
  • Vero cell lines have been isolated that are transformed with either the BglII N (UL19) or EcoRI G (UL16 to UL21) fragment of KOS [4].
  • RESULTS: We found that the HSV-1 UL21 gene product, a capsid-associated tegument protein with an apparent molecular mass of 62 kDa, promotes the outgrowth of long cellular processes when it is over-expressed in non-neural cells [5].

Biological context of UL21


Anatomical context of UL21

  • The UL21 protein co-localizes and physically associates with microtubules in the long processes [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of UL21


  1. The UL21 gene products of herpes simplex virus 1 are dispensable for growth in cultured cells. Baines, J.D., Koyama, A.H., Huang, T., Roizman, B. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and DNA sequence analysis of the Marek's disease virus serotype 2 genes homologous to the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL20 and UL21. Hatama, S., Jang, H.K., Izumiya, Y., Cai, J.S., Tsushima, Y., Kato, K., Miyazawa, T., Kai, C., Takahashi, E., Mikami, T. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Deletion of the UL21 gene in Pseudorabies virus results in the formation of DNA-deprived capsids: an electron microscopy study. Wagenaar, F., Pol, J.M., de Wind, N., Kimman, T.G. Vet. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutations in herpes simplex virus type 1 genes encoding VP5 and VP23 abrogate capsid formation and cleavage of replicated DNA. Desai, P., DeLuca, N.A., Glorioso, J.C., Person, S. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Herpes simplex virus encodes a virion-associated protein which promotes long cellular processes in over-expressing cells. Takakuwa, H., Goshima, F., Koshizuka, T., Murata, T., Daikoku, T., Nishiyama, Y. Genes Cells (2001) [Pubmed]
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