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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Virus Assembly

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Disease relevance of Virus Assembly


High impact information on Virus Assembly

  • During virus assembly, a subset of MA is phosphorylated on the C-terminal tyrosine by a virion-associated cellular protein kinase [6].
  • High titer producer clones expressing ZAP-70 were generated in the Gibbon ape leukemia virus packaging line PG13 [7].
  • Direct contact between hematopoietic cells and viral packaging cell lines or other sources of stroma has been shown to increase the efficiency of retroviral-mediated gene transfer into these target cells compared with infection with viral supernatant [8].
  • In addition, we demonstrate that membrane association of wild-type VP40 also induces the conformational switch from monomeric to hexameric molecules that may form the building blocks for initiation of virus assembly and budding [9].
  • The nucleocapsid-independent formation of apparently bona fide viral envelopes represents a novel mode of virus assembly [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Virus Assembly


Biological context of Virus Assembly

  • Another mutant, MN1, which lacks amino acids 4 to 21 of M protein demonstrated that the abilities of M protein to inhibit chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression and to localize to the nucleus were unaffected by deletion of this lysine-rich amino-terminal region but that the ability to function in virus assembly was ablated [14].
  • In addition, the aspartic acid at position 111 in the HCV core protein sequence was found to be crucial for virus assembly, demonstrating the usefulness of this system for mapping amino acids critical to HCV morphogenesis [15].
  • To investigate the role of HA palmitylation in virus assembly, we used reverse genetics technique to introduce substitutions and deletions that affected the three conserved cysteine residues into the H3 subtype HA [16].
  • A mutation at matrix residue 62 reversed the effect of a position 34 change which blocks envelope glycoprotein incorporation into virions, and substitutions at residues 27 and 51 reversed the phenotype of a position 86 mutation which redirects virus assembly to the cytoplasm [17].
  • These mutations do not impair virus assembly and release, RNA encapsidation, or envelope glycoprotein incorporation into virions but rather cause significant defects in an early step in the virus life cycle, as measured by single-cycle infectivity assays and the analysis of viral DNA synthesis early postinfection [18].

Anatomical context of Virus Assembly


Associations of Virus Assembly with chemical compounds

  • Finally, we observed that a previously described matrix mutant, Myr1E, was insensitive to the effects of leptomycin B, apparently bypassing the nuclear compartment during virus assembly [21].
  • As might be expected from this finding, viral protein synthesis accompanies virus assembly in actinomycin D-treated cells [22].
  • Second, the resulting NH2-terminal 23-residue fragment is removed during virus assembly [23].
  • The stage of virus assembly inhibited by colchicine and dibucaine was studied by experiments with [3H]-leucine or [35S]methionine [24].
  • This demonstrates that virus assembly is possible in the absence of M; conversely, the cytoplasmic domain of F allows incorporation of M and enhances assembly [25].

Gene context of Virus Assembly

  • Cellular functions that promote viral replication include the MAK3-encoded N-acetyltransferase whose modification of the gag N terminus is necessary for L-A virus assembly [26].
  • These data indicate that VP24 possesses structural features commonly associated with viral matrix proteins and that VP24 may have a role in virus assembly and budding [27].
  • The VP40 matrix protein of Ebola virus buds from cells in the form of virus-like particles (VLPs) and plays a central role in virus assembly and budding [28].
  • Interestingly, expression of APOBEC3G in the presence of wild-type Vif not only affected viral packaging but also reduced its intracellular expression level [29].
  • In contrast, Pr55gag expressed in the absence of Vpu was initially inserted into the plasma membrane, but subsequently endocytosed, and virus assembly was partially shifted to internal membranes [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Virus Assembly


  1. Proteasome inhibition interferes with gag polyprotein processing, release, and maturation of HIV-1 and HIV-2. Schubert, U., Ott, D.E., Chertova, E.N., Welker, R., Tessmer, U., Princiotta, M.F., Bennink, J.R., Krausslich, H.G., Yewdell, J.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Myristoylation-dependent replication and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus 1. Bryant, M., Ratner, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. In vitro phosphorylation of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1 on serine 66 by casein kinase II. Li, M., Lyon, M.K., Garcea, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Cellular transcription factor Sp1 recruits simian virus 40 capsid proteins to the viral packaging signal, ses. Gordon-Shaag, A., Ben-Nun-Shaul, O., Roitman, V., Yosef, Y., Oppenheim, A. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Localization of the Vpx packaging signal within the C terminus of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Gag precursor protein. Wu, X., Conway, J.A., Kim, J., Kappes, J.C. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. HIV-1 infection of nondividing cells: C-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation of the viral matrix protein is a key regulator. Gallay, P., Swingler, S., Aiken, C., Trono, D. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Reconstitution of T cell receptor signaling in ZAP-70-deficient cells by retroviral transduction of the ZAP-70 gene. Taylor, N., Bacon, K.B., Smith, S., Jahn, T., Kadlecek, T.A., Uribe, L., Kohn, D.B., Gelfand, E.W., Weiss, A., Weinberg, K. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Bone marrow extracellular matrix molecules improve gene transfer into human hematopoietic cells via retroviral vectors. Moritz, T., Patel, V.P., Williams, D.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Membrane association induces a conformational change in the Ebola virus matrix protein. Scianimanico, S., Schoehn, G., Timmins, J., Ruigrok, R.H., Klenk, H.D., Weissenhorn, W. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Nucleocapsid-independent assembly of coronavirus-like particles by co-expression of viral envelope protein genes. Vennema, H., Godeke, G.J., Rossen, J.W., Voorhout, W.F., Horzinek, M.C., Opstelten, D.J., Rottier, P.J. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. A single deletion in the membrane-proximal region of the Sindbis virus glycoprotein E2 endodomain blocks virus assembly. Hernandez, R., Lee, H., Nelson, C., Brown, D.T. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of M protein aggregation in defective assembly of temperature-sensitive M protein mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus. Flood, E.A., McKenzie, M.O., Lyles, D.S. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Histidine 39 in the dengue virus type 2 M protein has an important role in virus assembly. Pryor, M.J., Azzola, L., Wright, P.J., Davidson, A.D. J. Gen. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The role of vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein in inhibition of host-directed gene expression is genetically separable from its function in virus assembly. Black, B.L., Rhodes, R.B., McKenzie, M., Lyles, D.S. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Hepatitis C virus-like particle budding: role of the core protein and importance of its Asp111. Blanchard, E., Hourioux, C., Brand, D., Ait-Goughoulte, M., Moreau, A., Trassard, S., Sizaret, P.Y., Dubois, F., Roingeard, P. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Palmitylation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (H3) is not essential for virus assembly or infectivity. Jin, H., Subbarao, K., Bagai, S., Leser, G.P., Murphy, B.R., Lamb, R.A. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix revertants: effects on virus assembly, Gag processing, and Env incorporation into virions. Ono, A., Huang, M., Freed, E.O. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of matrix in an early postentry step in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 life cycle. Kiernan, R.E., Ono, A., Englund, G., Freed, E.O. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Myristylation site in Pr65gag is essential for virus particle formation by Moloney murine leukemia virus. Rein, A., McClure, M.R., Rice, N.R., Luftig, R.B., Schultz, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulated nuclear targeting of cauliflower mosaic virus. Karsies, A., Merkle, T., Szurek, B., Bonas, U., Hohn, T., Leclerc, D. J. Gen. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Nuclear entry and CRM1-dependent nuclear export of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein. Scheifele, L.Z., Garbitt, R.A., Rhoads, J.D., Parent, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Synthesis of murine leukemia virus proteins associated with virions assembled in actinomycin D-treated cells: evidence for persistence of viral messenger RNA. Levin, J.G., Rosenak, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular processing of adenovirus proteins. Sung, M.T., Cao, T.M., Lischwe, M.A., Coleman, R.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. The effect of colchicine and dibucaine on the morphogenesis of Semliki Forest virus. Richardson, C.D., Vance, D.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Chimeric measles viruses with a foreign envelope. Spielhofer, P., Bächi, T., Fehr, T., Christiansen, G., Cattaneo, R., Kaelin, K., Billeter, M.A., Naim, H.Y. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Double-stranded and single-stranded RNA viruses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wickner, R.B. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Biochemical and functional characterization of the Ebola virus VP24 protein: implications for a role in virus assembly and budding. Han, Z., Boshra, H., Sunyer, J.O., Zwiers, S.H., Paragas, J., Harty, R.N. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Contribution of ebola virus glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and VP24 to budding of VP40 virus-like particles. Licata, J.M., Johnson, R.F., Han, Z., Harty, R.N. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif protein reduces intracellular expression and inhibits packaging of APOBEC3G (CEM15), a cellular inhibitor of virus infectivity. Kao, S., Khan, M.A., Miyagi, E., Plishka, R., Buckler-White, A., Strebel, K. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Vpu and Tsg101 regulate intracellular targeting of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core protein precursor Pr55gag. Harila, K., Prior, I., Sjöberg, M., Salminen, A., Hinkula, J., Suomalainen, M. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Assembly of vaccinia virus: effects of rifampin on the intracellular distribution of viral protein p65. Sodeik, B., Griffiths, G., Ericsson, M., Moss, B., Doms, R.W. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Phosphorylation and nucleic acid binding properties of m1 Moloney murine sarcoma virus-specific pP60gag. Oskarsson, M.K., Long, C.W., Robey, W.G., Scherer, M.A., Vande Woude, G.F. J. Virol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  33. High-level expression of the human CB2 cannabinoid receptor using a baculovirus system. Nowell, K.W., Pettit, D.A., Cabral, W.A., Zimmerman, H.W., Abood, M.E., Cabral, G.A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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