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Gene Review

GK3P  -  glycerol kinase 3 pseudogene

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ATP:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase 3, GK 3, GKP3, GKTB, Glycerokinase 3, ...
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Disease relevance of GK3P

  • Glycerokinase from Cellulomonas sp. was used to develop biosensor based on flow calorimetry for quantitative analysis of glycerol during bioconversion process [1].

High impact information on GK3P

  • This labeled ATP was used as a thiophosphoryl group donor in the reactions catalyzed by glycerol kinase (ATP:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase; EC and by hexokinase (ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase; EC [2].
  • Niddm1i is a major glucose-controlling 16-Mb region in the diabetic GK rat that causes defective insulin secretion and corresponds to loci in humans and mice associated with type 2 diabetes [3].
  • By contrast, a strain carrying the GK genotype proximally in Niddm1i exhibited both intact insulin release in response to high potassium and intact single-cell exocytosis, but insulin secretion was suppressed when stimulated by glucose [3].
  • Congenic strains carrying the GK genotype distally in Niddm1i displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to both glucose and high potassium, as well as decreased single-cell exocytosis [3].
  • The rate of glycerol-dependent ATP-consumption in a system consisting of glycerokinase, ATP, luciferin, and luciferase was determined kinetically as a decrease of the ATP-induced luminescence and used for calculation of the concentration of glycerol [4].

Biological context of GK3P


Associations of GK3P with chemical compounds

  • Glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) is produced by glycerol kinase (GK) and is found in several biochemical pathways in different cellular compartments, such as the glycerol phosphate shuttle and glycerophospholipid synthesis [5].
  • The new gamma-phosphate is hydrolyzed to Pi by using glycerokinase and D-glyceraldehyde [7].
  • Effective cGMP-dependence was tested in rings pretreated with soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitors {either 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) or LY-83583} or G kinase inhibitor (KT-5823), and a thiol reductant [dithiothreitol (DTT)] was used to test reversibility of S-nitrosylation [8].
  • Results are compared with determinations made by the solution method that uses the three enzymes glycerokinase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GK3P

  • Using a combination of sequence analysis and evolutionary comparisons of orthologs between species, we characterized functional domains in the protein required for GK activity [6].


  1. Development of enzyme flow calorimeter system for monitoring of microbial glycerol conversion. Stefuca, V., Vostiar, I., Sefcovicov??, J., Katrl??k, J., Mastihuba, V., Greifov??, M., Gemeiner, P. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Adenosine 5'-O-([gamma-18O]gamma-thio)triphosphate chiral at the gamma-phosphorus: stereochemical consequences of reactions catalyzed by pyruvate kinase, glycerol kinase, and hexokinase. Orr, G.A., Simon, J., Jones, S.R., Chin, G.J., Knowles, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Separately Inherited Defects in Insulin Exocytosis and {beta}-Cell Glucose Metabolism Contribute to Type 2 Diabetes. Granhall, C., Rosengren, A.H., Renstr??m, E., Luthman, H. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Sensitive kinetic bioluminescent assay of glycerol release from human fat cells. Björkhem, I., Arner, P., Thore, A., Ostman, J. J. Lipid Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning and characterization of a putative human glycerol 3-phosphate permease gene (SLC37A1 or G3PP) on 21q22.3: mutation analysis in two candidate phenotypes, DFNB10 and a glycerol kinase deficiency. Bartoloni, L., Wattenhofer, M., Kudoh, J., Berry, A., Shibuya, K., Kawasaki, K., Wang, J., Asakawa, S., Talior, I., Bonne-Tamir, B., Rossier, C., Michaud, J., McCabe, E.R., Minoshima, S., Shimizu, N., Scott, H.S., Antonarakis, S.E. Genomics (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Conserved family of glycerol kinase loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Martinez Agosto, J.A., McCabe, E.R. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. A method for determining the positional isotope exchange in a nucleoside triphosphate: cyclization of nucleoside triphosphate by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Webb, M.R. Biochemistry (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. S-nitrosoglutathione inhibits alpha1-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and ligand binding in pulmonary artery. Nozik-Grayck, E., Whalen, E.J., Stamler, J.S., McMahon, T.J., Chitano, P., Piantadosi, C.A. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The use of an immobilized glycerol dehydrogenase nylon-tube reactor in the determination of glycerol. Hinsch, W., Sundaram, P.V. Clin. Chim. Acta (1980) [Pubmed]
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