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Gene Review

Sat1  -  spermidine/spermine N1-acetyl transferase 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Ab2-402, SSAT, Sat
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Disease relevance of Sat

  • Alveolar and total lung SP-A and Sat PC were higher relative to body weight and surface area on d 1 than at all other ages [1].
  • In the in vitro ischemia study, SSAT activity was evaluated in primary cortical neuronal cultures at 6-24 h re-oxygenation intervals following oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1 h, and the results from this group show that the enzyme activity increased by about 62% (P<0.05) at 24 h re-oxygenation [2].
  • In the present study, SSAT activity was evaluated in the rat CNS, following transient focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion [2].

High impact information on Sat

  • Cardiac triglyceride content was increased in the Sat and Unsat groups compared with NC (P < 0.05); however, ceramide content was higher in the Sat group compared with the Unsat group (2.9 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.2 nmol/g; P < 0.05), whereas the NC group was intermediate (2.3 +/- 0.3 nmol/g) [3].
  • Both high-fat diets increased the myocardial mRNA expression of the PPAR-regulated genes encoding uncoupling protein-3 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4, but only the Sat diet upregulated medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [3].
  • The number of apoptotic myocytes, assessed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining, was higher in the Sat group compared with the Unsat group (0.28 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.17 +/- 0.04 apoptotic cells/1,000 nuclei; P < 0.04) and was positively correlated to ceramide content (P < 0.02) [3].
  • This study assessed cardiac function, expression of PPAR-regulated genes, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats after 8 wk on either a low-fat diet [normal chow control (NC); 10% fat calories] or high-fat diets composed mainly of either saturated (Sat) or unsaturated fatty acids (Unsat) (60% fat calories) (n = 10/group) [3].
  • We asked how the quantities of the surfactant components surfactant protein A (SP-A) and saturated phosphatidylcholine (Sat PC) recovered by alveolar wash changed with age in relationship to morphologic measurements of alveolar surface area in rats [1].

Anatomical context of Sat

  • However, the peak increase of SSAT labelling was precocious in resistant neurons (such as those of ventromedial striatum and dentate gyrus granular layer) and delayed or very limited in vulnerable neurons (such as those of CA1 pyramidal layer and dorsolateral striatum) [4].
  • DXR was found to induce significant ECG alterations (Qat and Sat prolongation) and typical morphologic lesions in the left ventricle [5].

Associations of Sat with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sat

  • Animals were sacrificed at 3-24 h reperfusion following the MCA occlusion and SSAT activity was assayed in cortex and striatum [2].


  1. Changes in alveolar surface area, surfactant protein A, and saturated phosphatidylcholine with postnatal rat lung growth. Ohashi, T., Pinkerton, K., Ikegami, M., Jobe, A.H. Pediatr. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyl transferase activity in rat brain following transient focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Nagesh Babu, G., Sailor, K.A., Sun, D., Dempsey, R.J. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid diets on cardiomyocyte apoptosis, adipose distribution, and serum leptin. Okere, I.C., Chandler, M.P., McElfresh, T.A., Rennison, J.H., Sharov, V., Sabbah, H.N., Tserng, K.Y., Hoit, B.D., Ernsberger, P., Young, M.E., Stanley, W.C. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase mRNA levels show marked and region-specific changes in the early phase after transient forebrain ischemia. Zoli, M., Pedrazzi, P., Zini, I., Agnati, L.F. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Trifluoperazine does not affect doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in the rat. Villani, F., Monti, E., Piccinini, F., Favalli, L., Rozza Dionigi, A., Lanza, E., Poggi, P. Anticancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of receptor agonists on polyamine concentrations and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity in rat parotid gland. Nilsson, B.O., Rosengren, E. Experientia (1993) [Pubmed]
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