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Gene Review

HK3  -  hexokinase 3 (white cell)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HK III, HKIII, HXK3, Hexokinase type III, Hexokinase-3
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Disease relevance of HK3


High impact information on HK3

  • HIF-1alpha, VEGF(165), HK II, HK III, and macrophages showed no univariate correlation with (18)FDG [3].
  • HK III activity was cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate independent and was not influenced by calcium, calmodulin, polyamines, and heparin [1].
  • Isolated HK III exhibited a histone (H2B) protamine-phosphotranferase selectivity and used adenosine triphosphate but not guanosine triphosphate as phosphate donor [1].
  • The significance of HK III activity in adrenocortical carcinoma extracts at a high level as compared to that of normal tissue remains to be clarified with regard both to its possible relationship with tumoral cell growth and differentiation processes and to its potential interest as a marker of human tumoral tissue activity [1].
  • A comparison of two methods for detecting HK activity was made, yielding different results regarding HK II and HK III [4].

Biological context of HK3


Anatomical context of HK3


Associations of HK3 with chemical compounds

  • Hydroxyketone chelators, deferiprone (HK1), maltol (HK3) and their related compounds (HK2, 4-8), were characterized for their cytotoxic profiles against oral human normal and tumor cells [6].
  • Unlike HK3, HK1 and HK2 are not inhibited by high glucose concentrations [10].

Other interactions of HK3

  • In the malignant neoplasms studied, a significant elevation of HK-II and the appearance of additional anodal bands (HK-IIf and HK-III) have been demonstrated [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HK3


  1. Characterization of a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase highly active in human adrenocortical carcinoma. Vilgrain, I., Cochet, C., Chambaz, E.M. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. The overexpressed hexahistidine-tagged human hexokinase type III is inhibited by D-glucose. Palma, F., Agostini, D., Polidori, E., Stocchi, V. Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography. Bos, R., van Der Hoeven, J.J., van Der Wall, E., van Der Groep, P., van Diest, P.J., Comans, E.F., Joshi, U., Semenza, G.L., Hoekstra, O.S., Lammertsma, A.A., Molthoff, C.F. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Isoenzyme pattern and subcellular localization of hexokinases in human breast cancer and nonpathological breast tissue. Gudnason, V., Ingvarsson, S., Jonasdottir, A., Andresdottir, V., Egilsson, V. Int. J. Cancer (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequence of human hexokinase III cDNA and assignment of the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome band 5q35.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Furuta, H., Nishi, S., Le Beau, M.M., Fernald, A.A., Yano, H., Bell, G.I. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Cytotoxic activity of deferiprone, maltol and related hydroxyketones against human tumor cell lines. Yasumoto, E., Nakano, K., Nakayachi, T., Morshed, S.R., Hashimoto, K., Kikuchi, H., Nishikawa, H., Kawase, M., Sakagami, H. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Assignment of the hexokinase type 3 gene (HK3) to human chromosome band 5q35.3 by somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. Colosimo, A., Calabrese, G., Gennarelli, M., Ruzzo, A.M., Sangiuolo, F., Magnani, M., Palka, G., Novelli, G., Dallapiccola, B. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Interaction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4, Miz-1, leptin, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase, and granulin precursor with the N-terminal half of type III hexokinase. Sui, D., Wilson, J.E. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetically determined polymorphism of a form of hexokinase, HK III, found in human leucocytes. Povey, S., Corney, G., Harris, H. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. An electrophoretic study of the distribution and properties of human hexokinases. Rogers, P.A., Fisher, R.A., Harris, H. Biochem. Genet. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Hexokinase isoenzymes in the diagnosis of gastric and esophageal neoplasms. Bassalyk, L.S., Ljubimova, N.V. Neoplasma (1987) [Pubmed]
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