The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

salm  -  spalt major

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 3602, B1164, CG6464, Dmel\CG6464, Homeotic protein spalt-major, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of salm


High impact information on salm

  • Therefore, we conclude that Antp negatively regulates salm [2].
  • The time course of the interaction and reporter gene fusion experiments suggests (but does not prove) a direct interaction between Antp and cis-regulatory elements of salm [2].
  • spalt encodes an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger protein of novel structure which provides homeotic gene function in the head and tail region of the Drosophila embryo [3].
  • Based on P-element mediated germ line transformation and DNA sequence analysis of sal mutant alleles, we identified the transcription unit that carries sal function. sal is located close to the misidentified transcription unit, and it is expressed in similar temporal and spatial patterns during embryogenesis [3].
  • Antibodies produced against the sal protein show that sal is first expressed at the blastoderm stage and later in restricted areas of the embryonic nervous system as well as in the developing trachea [3].

Biological context of salm


Anatomical context of salm

  • Sal protein is expressed in the dorsal but not lateral ectoderm and acts as a competence modifier to bias the response to Spi ligand in favour of the oenocyte fate [7].

Regulatory relationships of salm

  • Finally, kni and knrl are likely to refine the L2 position by positively auto-regulating their own expression and by providing negative feedback to repress salm expression [8].
  • spalt-dependent switching between two cell fates that are induced by the Drosophila EGF receptor [6].

Other interactions of salm

  • The transcription factor encoded by spalt major (salm) gene, which is expressed in a broad wedge centered over the dpp stripe, is one target of Dpp signaling [9].
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence that the border between cells acquiring dorsal branch and dorsal trunk identity is established by the direct interaction of KNIRPS with a spalt cis-regulatory element [10].
  • Here, we present the isolation and characterization of novel spalt/spalt-related alleles, which analysis indicates that these genes cannot substitute for each other in the developmental processes studied [5].
  • We demonstrate that spalt and senseless are part of a genetic network, which regulates rhodopsin 6 and rhodopsin 1 [11].
  • We discuss a recently proposed model that integrates the roles of Sal and the EGFR pathway in oenocyte/chordotonal organ induction [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of salm

  • Sequence analysis of the sal gene of Drosophila virilis, a species which is phylogenetically separated by approximately 60 million years, suggests that the sal function is conserved during evolution, consistent with its proposed role in head formation during arthropod evolution [3].


  1. The murine homolog of SALL4, a causative gene in Okihiro syndrome, is essential for embryonic stem cell proliferation, and cooperates with Sall1 in anorectal, heart, brain and kidney development. Sakaki-Yumoto, M., Kobayashi, C., Sato, A., Fujimura, S., Matsumoto, Y., Takasato, M., Kodama, T., Aburatani, H., Asashima, M., Yoshida, N., Nishinakamura, R. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of target genes of the homeotic gene Antennapedia by enhancer detection. Wagner-Bernholz, J.T., Wilson, C., Gibson, G., Schuh, R., Gehring, W.J. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. spalt encodes an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger protein of novel structure which provides homeotic gene function in the head and tail region of the Drosophila embryo. Kühnlein, R.P., Frommer, G., Friedrich, M., Gonzalez-Gaitan, M., Weber, A., Wagner-Bernholz, J.F., Gehring, W.J., Jäckle, H., Schuh, R. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Spalt transcription factors are required for R3/R4 specification and establishment of planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye. Domingos, P.M., Mlodzik, M., Mendes, C.S., Brown, S., Steller, H., Mollereau, B. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of regulatory regions driving the expression of the Drosophila spalt complex at different developmental stages. Barrio, R., de Celis, J.F., Bolshakov, S., Kafatos, F.C. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. spalt-dependent switching between two cell fates that are induced by the Drosophila EGF receptor. Elstob, P.R., Brodu, V., Gould, A.P. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Insect oenocytes: a model system for studying cell-fate specification by Hox genes. Gould, A.P., Elstob, P.R., Brodu, V. J. Anat. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. The knirps and knirps-related genes organize development of the second wing vein in Drosophila. Lunde, K., Biehs, B., Nauber, U., Bier, E. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. The spalt gene links the A/P compartment boundary to a linear adult structure in the Drosophila wing. Sturtevant, M.A., Biehs, B., Marin, E., Bier, E. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. The transcription factors KNIRPS and KNIRPS RELATED control cell migration and branch morphogenesis during Drosophila tracheal development. Chen, C.K., Kühnlein, R.P., Eulenberg, K.G., Vincent, S., Affolter, M., Schuh, R. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of R7 and R8 differentiation by the spalt genes. Domingos, P.M., Brown, S., Barrio, R., Ratnakumar, K., Frankfort, B.J., Mardon, G., Steller, H., Mollereau, B. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities