The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Rh6  -  Rhodopsin 6

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG5192, DMELRH6, Dm Rh6, Dmel\CG5192, Opsin Rh6, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Rh6

  • These results establish that rhodopsin is transported via a Rab6 regulated pathway and that defects in trafficking pathways lead to retinal degeneration [1].
  • rhodopsin mutations result in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), the most frequent being Proline-23 substitution by histidine (RhoP23H) [2].
  • Rhodopsin formation in Drosophila is dependent on the PINTA retinoid-binding protein [3].
  • We propose that the sequestering of arrestin to membranes is a possible mechanism for retinal disease associated with previously identified rhodopsin alleles in humans [4].
  • Interactions between TcTex-1 and a diverse set of proteins such as the dynein intermediate chain, Fyn, DOC2, FIP1, the poliovirus receptor, CD155, and the rhodopsin cytoplasmic tail have been reported; yet, despite the broad range of targets, a consensus binding sequence remains uncertain [5].

High impact information on Rh6

  • The Rhesus blood-group antigens are defined by a complex association of membrane polypeptides that includes the non-glycosylated Rh proteins (RhD and RhCE) and the RHag glycoprotein, which is strictly required for cell surface expression of these antigens [6].
  • Despite their importance in transfusion medicine, the function of RhAG and Rh proteins remains unknown, except that their absence in Rh(null) individuals leads to morphological and functional abnormalities of erythrocytes, known as the Rh-deficiency syndrome [6].
  • The theory quantitatively describes the inactivation kinetics of activated rhodopsin in vivo and can be independently tested with molecular and spectroscopic data [7].
  • In Drosophila, the major rhodopsin Rh1 is synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes of the R1-R6 photoreceptor cells and is then transported to the rhabdomeres where it functions in phototransduction [8].
  • We have used P-element-mediated transformation to introduce the cloned Rh1 rhodopsin gene into the germ line of Drosophila and fully rescue the visual phenotype of mutant ninaE flies [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Rh6

  • In a genetic screen for mutations that affect the biosynthesis of rhodopsin, we identified a novel CRAL-TRIO domain protein, prolonged depolarization afterpotential is not apparent (PINTA), which binds to all-trans-retinol [3].

Biological context of Rh6


Anatomical context of Rh6

  • Therefore, Otd is a key player in the terminal differentiation of subtypes of photoreceptors by regulating rhodopsin expression, a function reminiscent of the role of one of its mammalian homologs, Crx, in eye development [11].
  • In Drosophila, rhodopsin (Rh1), the most abundant rhodopsin, is glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and requires its molecular chaperone, NinaA, for exit from the ER and transport through the secretory pathway [13].
  • Drac1 was localized in a specialization of the photoreceptor cortical actin cytoskeleton, which was lost in rhodopsin-null mutants [14].
  • Rh1 rhodopsin localizes to and is essential for the development and maintenance of the rhabdomere, the specialized membrane-rich organelle that serves as the site of phototransduction [15].
  • Intriguingly, we have found a third isoform, dgqC, which is specifically and abundantly expressed in male gonads, and shares the divergent rhodopsin-binding exon of dgqA [16].

Associations of Rh6 with chemical compounds

  • These results indicate that the ninaG oxidoreductase acts in the biochemical pathway responsible for conversion of retinal to the rhodopsin chromophore, 3-hydroxyretinal [17].
  • Further, in transgenic flies expressing Rh4 as the major rhodopsin, 3-hydroxyretinal is the major retinoid in ninaG+, but a different retinoid profile is observed in ninaG(P330) [17].
  • Chimeric Rh1 pigments carrying individual substitutions of the cytoplasmic loops C2 and C3 and the C-terminus with the corresponding regions of Rho retained the ability to stimulate phototranduction in Drosophila, but failed to activate transducin [18].
  • We overexpressed wild-type, a GTPase defective (Q71L), and a guanine nucleotide binding defective (N125I) Rab6 protein in Drosophila photoreceptors to assess the in vivo role of Rab6 in the trafficking of rhodopsin and other proteins [1].
  • Here, we show that both Rh5- and Rh6-expressing fibers overlap equally with the 5-HT arborization and that it, in turn, also contacts the dendritic tree of the LNv [19].

Regulatory relationships of Rh6


Other interactions of Rh6

  • This suggests that the expression of Rh5 may be induced by an Rh3-expressing R7 cell, whereas Rh6 expression is most likely a default state of the R8 cell [21].
  • Rh3 and Rh5 are present in most cases in the same ommatidia, which account for approximately 27% of all ommatidia, and Rh6 is found in the complementary 73% [10].
  • Rhodopsin 1 has the earliest onset, followed by Rhodopsins 3, 4, and 5 at approximately the same time, and finally Rhodopsin 6 [22].
  • We demonstrate that spalt and senseless are part of a genetic network, which regulates rhodopsin 6 and rhodopsin 1 [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rh6


  1. Rab6 regulation of rhodopsin transport in Drosophila. Shetty, K.M., Kurada, P., O'Tousa, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Rhodopsin maturation defects induce photoreceptor death by apoptosis: a fly model for RhodopsinPro23His human retinitis pigmentosa. Galy, A., Roux, M.J., Sahel, J.A., Léveillard, T., Giangrande, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Rhodopsin formation in Drosophila is dependent on the PINTA retinoid-binding protein. Wang, T., Montell, C. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. A role for the light-dependent phosphorylation of visual arrestin. Alloway, P.G., Dolph, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Crystal structure of dynein light chain TcTex-1. Williams, J.C., Xie, H., Hendrickson, W.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The human Rhesus-associated RhAG protein and a kidney homologue promote ammonium transport in yeast. Marini, A.M., Matassi, G., Raynal, V., André, B., Cartron, J.P., Chérif-Zahar, B. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Arrestin binding determines the rate of inactivation of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin in vivo. Ranganathan, R., Stevens, C.F. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. The cyclophilin homolog ninaA is required in the secretory pathway. Colley, N.J., Baker, E.K., Stamnes, M.A., Zuker, C.S. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Ectopic expression of a minor Drosophila opsin in the major photoreceptor cell class: distinguishing the role of primary receptor and cellular context. Zuker, C.S., Mismer, D., Hardy, R., Rubin, G.M. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Rhodopsin patterning in central photoreceptor cells of the blowfly Calliphora vicina: cloning and characterization of Calliphora rhodopsins Rh3, Rh5 and Rh6. Schmitt, A., Vogt, A., Friedmann, K., Paulsen, R., Huber, A. J. Exp. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Otd/Crx, a dual regulator for the specification of ommatidia subtypes in the Drosophila retina. Tahayato, A., Sonneville, R., Pichaud, F., Wernet, M.F., Papatsenko, D., Beaufils, P., Cook, T., Desplan, C. Dev. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Rhodopsin mutations as the cause of retinal degeneration. Classification of degeneration phenotypes in the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Bentrop, J. Acta anatomica. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides in rhodopsin maturation and association with its molecular chaperone, NinaA. Webel, R., Menon, I., O'Tousa, J.E., Colley, N.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Rescue of photoreceptor degeneration in rhodopsin-null Drosophila mutants by activated Rac1. Chang, H.Y., Ready, D.F. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. The Drosophila rhodopsin cytoplasmic tail domain is required for maintenance of rhabdomere structure. Ahmad, S.T., Natochin, M., Artemyev, N.O., O'Tousa, J.E. FASEB J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Novel Gq alpha isoform is a candidate transducer of rhodopsin signaling in a Drosophila testes-autonomous pacemaker. Alvarez, C.E., Robison, K., Gilbert, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. The Drosophila ninaG oxidoreductase acts in visual pigment chromophore production. Sarfare, S., Ahmad, S.T., Joyce, M.V., Boggess, B., O'Tousa, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Probing rhodopsin-transducin interaction using Drosophila Rh1-bovine rhodopsin chimeras. Natochin, M., Barren, B., Ahmad, S.T., O'tousa, J.E., Artemyev, N.O. Vision Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic dissection of trophic interactions in the larval optic neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster. Rodriguez Moncalvo, V.G., Campos, A.R. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of R7 and R8 differentiation by the spalt genes. Domingos, P.M., Brown, S., Barrio, R., Ratnakumar, K., Frankfort, B.J., Mardon, G., Steller, H., Mollereau, B. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Patterning of the R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells of Drosophila: evidence for induced and default cell-fate specification. Chou, W.H., Huber, A., Bentrop, J., Schulz, S., Schwab, K., Chadwell, L.V., Paulsen, R., Britt, S.G. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of Drosophila rhodopsins during photoreceptor cell differentiation: insights into R7 and R8 cell subtype commitment. Earl, J.B., Britt, S.G. Gene Expr. Patterns (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular cloning of Drosophila Rh6 rhodopsin: the visual pigment of a subset of R8 photoreceptor cells. Huber, A., Schulz, S., Bentrop, J., Groell, C., Wolfrum, U., Paulsen, R. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of rhodopsin and arrestin during the light-dark cycle in Drosophila. Hartman, S.J., Menon, I., Haug-Collet, K., Colley, N.J. Mol. Vis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Epitope masking of rhabdomeric rhodopsin during endocytosis-induced retinal degeneration. Orem, N.R., Dolph, P.J. Mol. Vis. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities