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Gene Review

Myd88  -  CG2078 gene product from transcript CG2078-RB

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG2078, DMMYD88, DmMyD88, DmMyd88, Dmel\CG2078, ...
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Disease relevance of Myd88


High impact information on Myd88

  • Intracellular signalling mechanisms mediated by TIRs are similar, with MyD88 (refs 5-8) and TRAF6 (refs 9, 10) having critical roles [2].
  • Finally, our findings implicate MyD88 as a general adaptor/regulator molecule for the Toll/IL-1R family of receptors for innate immunity [3].
  • The complex of MyD88 and Tube forms prior to signaling and is localized to the embryonic plasma membrane by MyD88 [4].
  • We also show that dMyD88 associates with the death domain-containing adapter Drosophila Fas-associated death domain-containing protein (dFADD), which in turn interacts with the apical caspase Dredd [5].
  • Here, we report that recognition of CpG DNA requires MyD88, an adaptor protein involved in signal transduction by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), essential components of innate immune recognition in both Drosophila and mammals [1,2] [6].

Biological context of Myd88

  • Experiments in cultured cells reveal that the fly orthologue of the adaptor protein MyD88 is essential for signal transduction from Toll to a second adaptor protein, Tube [7].
  • MyD88 was localized to the distal region of mouse chromosome 9 by interspecific backcross mapping [8].
  • Here, I demonstrate that the open reading frame of MyD88, a gene induced in myeloid differentiation, is related to the cytoplasmic domains of the interleukin-1 receptor and the Toll gene product [9].

Anatomical context of Myd88

  • The expression pattern of MyD88 is also more widespread than originally believed: a 2.6 kb hMyD88 mRNA species was found to be constitutively expressed in many adult human tissues; in addition MyD88 expression was observed in monocyte, T, B, NK and dendritic cells [10].
  • Interestingly, many aa residues conserved among the insect Toll-like cytoplasmic domains are also conserved in mammalian and avian type-I interleukin-1 receptors and the hypothetical product of a transcript, MyD88, found in murine myeloid cells [11].
  • Northern blot analysis revealed widespread expression of MyD88 in many adult mouse tissues, and RT-PCR studies detected MyD88 mRNA in T and B cell lines and differentiating embryonic stem cells [8].
  • Although various microbial cell-wall components are recognized by different receptors, all of these responses are abrogated in MyD88-deficient cells [12].

Other interactions of Myd88

  • Drosophila MyD88 is an adapter in the Toll signaling pathway [5].
  • These genes, which include Sos and Myd88, represent putative targets for miRNA regulation [13].


  1. Drosophila MyD88 is required for the response to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infections. Tauszig-Delamasure, S., Bilak, H., Capovilla, M., Hoffmann, J.A., Imler, J.L. Nat. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Severe impairment of interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signalling in mice lacking IRAK-4. Suzuki, N., Suzuki, S., Duncan, G.S., Millar, D.G., Wada, T., Mirtsos, C., Takada, H., Wakeham, A., Itie, A., Li, S., Penninger, J.M., Wesche, H., Ohashi, P.S., Mak, T.W., Yeh, W.C. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. MyD88 is an adaptor protein in the hToll/IL-1 receptor family signaling pathways. Medzhitov, R., Preston-Hurlburt, P., Kopp, E., Stadlen, A., Chen, C., Ghosh, S., Janeway, C.A. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulated assembly of the Toll signaling complex drives Drosophila dorsoventral patterning. Sun, H., Towb, P., Chiem, D.N., Foster, B.A., Wasserman, S.A. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Drosophila MyD88 is an adapter in the Toll signaling pathway. Horng, T., Medzhitov, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Recognition of CpG DNA is mediated by signaling pathways dependent on the adaptor protein MyD88. Schnare, M., Holt, A.C., Takeda, K., Akira, S., Medzhitov, R. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. A heterotrimeric death domain complex in Toll signaling. Sun, H., Bristow, B.N., Qu, G., Wasserman, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetic structure and chromosomal mapping of MyD88. Hardiman, G., Jenkins, N.A., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Garcia, D.K., Naylor, S.L., Kastelein, R.A., Bazan, J.F. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Macrophage differentiation marker MyD88 is a member of the Toll/IL-1 receptor family. Hultmark, D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular characterization and modular analysis of human MyD88. Hardiman, G., Rock, F.L., Balasubramanian, S., Kastelein, R.A., Bazan, J.F. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Interspecific comparisons reveal conserved features of the Drosophila Toll protein. Yamagata, M., Merlie, J.P., Sanes, J.R. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Toll-like receptors: lessons from knockout mice. Akira, S. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Developmental defects by antisense-mediated inactivation of micro-RNAs 2 and 13 in Drosophila and the identification of putative target genes. Boutla, A., Delidakis, C., Tabler, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
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