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Gene Review

tbx1  -  T-box 1

Danio rerio

Synonyms: SO:0000704, T-box protein 1, T-box transcription factor TBX1, mp:zf637-3-000616, zgc:136724
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High impact information on tbx1

  • Mutant analysis in the zebrafish Danio rerio has demonstrated distinct developmental roles for the T-box transcription factor Spadetail (Spt) and the Nodal-receptor cofactor One-Eyed Pinhead (Oep) in the formation of mesoderm and endoderm [1].
  • Finally, genetic analysis reveals novel roles for the T-box transcription factor no tail and the Nodal signaling pathway as upstream regulators of lrdr1 expression and KV morphogenesis [2].
  • Using cell transplantation studies, we demonstrate that vgo/tbx1 acts cell autonomously in the pharyngeal mesendoderm and influences the development of neural crest-derived cartilages secondarily [3].
  • We provide both phenotypic and genetic evidence that these Fgf signaling components interact with no tail and spadetail, two zebrafish T-box transcription factors that are required for the development of all posterior mesoderm [4].
  • T-box genes encode transcriptional regulators that control many aspects of embryonic development [5].

Biological context of tbx1

  • Within this 7-kb distal regulatory region, we delineated a 1300-bp region with a cluster of consensus binding sites for T-box transcription factors [6].
  • Thus, GATA-4 regulatory elements control gene expression differentially along the rostro-caudal axis, and T-box binding elements in the GATA-4 promoter contribute to heart-specific expression [6].

Anatomical context of tbx1

  • Through the stage of embryonic shield formation, tbx1 expression is restricted to the hypoblast, in the region of cells fated to become head and lateral plate mesoderm and pharyngeal endoderm [7].
  • At 18 hpf, when the heart tube is beginning to assemble, three domains of tbx1 expression can be seen: cardiac precursors, pharyngeal arch precursors and otic vesicle [7].
  • Expression of zebrafish tbx1 by whole-mount in situ hybridization was first detected at 40% epiboly, 5.0 hours post fertilization (hpf) in the dorsal blastoderm margin [7].
  • The recently identified zebrafish T-box gene hrT is expressed in the developing heart and in the endothelial cells forming the dorsal aorta [8].
  • Two T-box genes are expressed in the developing telencephalon of several vertebrate species, including amphibia, birds and mammals [9].

Other interactions of tbx1


  1. One-Eyed Pinhead and Spadetail are essential for heart and somite formation. Griffin, K.J., Kimelman, D. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Kupffer's vesicle is a ciliated organ of asymmetry in the zebrafish embryo that initiates left-right development of the brain, heart and gut. Essner, J.J., Amack, J.D., Nyholm, M.K., Harris, E.B., Yost, H.J. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The zebrafish van gogh mutation disrupts tbx1, which is involved in the DiGeorge deletion syndrome in humans. Piotrowski, T., Ahn, D.G., Schilling, T.F., Nair, S., Ruvinsky, I., Geisler, R., Rauch, G.J., Haffter, P., Zon, L.I., Zhou, Y., Foott, H., Dawid, I.B., Ho, R.K. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Zebrafish fgf24 functions with fgf8 to promote posterior mesodermal development. Draper, B.W., Stock, D.W., Kimmel, C.B. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The zebrafish T-box genes no tail and spadetail are required for development of trunk and tail mesoderm and medial floor plate. Amacher, S.L., Draper, B.W., Summers, B.R., Kimmel, C.B. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. T-box binding sites are required for activity of a cardiac GATA-4 enhancer. Heicklen-Klein, A., Evans, T. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and characterization of zebrafish tbx1. Kochilas, L.K., Potluri, V., Gitler, A., Balasubramanian, K., Chin, A.J. Gene Expr. Patterns (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. HrT is required for cardiovascular development in zebrafish. Szeto, D.P., Griffin, K.J., Kimelman, D. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Overlapping expression of zebrafish T-brain-1 and eomesodermin during forebrain development. Mione, M., Shanmugalingam, S., Kimelman, D., Griffin, K. Mech. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. T-box gene eomesodermin and the homeobox-containing Mix/Bix gene mtx2 regulate epiboly movements in the zebrafish. Bruce, A.E., Howley, C., Dixon Fox, M., Ho, R.K. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Interplay between FGF, one-eyed pinhead, and T-box transcription factors during zebrafish posterior development. Griffin, K.J., Kimelman, D. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning of zebrafish T-box genes tbx15 and tbx18 and their expression during embryonic development. Begemann, G., Gibert, Y., Meyer, A., Ingham, P.W. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of the zebrafish tbx16 gene and evolution of the vertebrate T-box family. Ruvinsky, I., Silver, L.M., Ho, R.K. Dev. Genes Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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