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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Cartilage


High impact information on Cartilage

  • I report here the presence, in some human cartilages, of a proteoglycan population that initially will not aggregate with the hyaluronic acid but subsequently can be chased into aggregate [6].
  • Misexpression of Hoxa-13 resulted in a remarkable size reduction of the zeugopodal cartilages as a result of the arrest of cartilage cell growth and differentiation restricted in the zeugopod [7].
  • Thrombin and the combination of prothrombin plus prothrombinase induced proteoglycan release from both normal and arthritic cartilages [8].
  • In most OA cartilages, a CS epitope 846 was elevated in content, this being most marked in phase II (mean: fivefold) [9].
  • Compared to cartilages either freshly isolated or cultured without IL-1, bovine cartilage cultured with IL-1 for 3-5 d showed an increase in both pericellular and intercellular immunohistochemical staining [10].

Biological context of Cartilage


Anatomical context of Cartilage


Associations of Cartilage with chemical compounds

  • High keratan sulfate content is reported in adult cartilage, whereas it is almost absent in young and tumoral cartilages [21].
  • Either apatite, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, or both were found in all cartilages including those of 3 patients who had no radiographic or light microscopic evidence of calcification [22].
  • A very low level of activity was detected for serine proteases and no variation was observed between normal and diseased cartilages [23].
  • Cartilages were not resorbed in the presence of doxycycline, whereas control cartilages were completely degraded [24].
  • Thus, Factor XIIIa and tTGase activities were increased in aging, degenerative cartilages and induced by IL-1 [25].

Gene context of Cartilage


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cartilage


  1. Glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity in human respiratory tract cartilages and pulmonary chondromatous hamartomas. Viale, G., Doglioni, C., Dell'Orto, P., Zanetti, G., Iuzzolino, P., Bontempini, L., Coggi, G. Am. J. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Poland-Möbius syndrome associated with dextrocardia. Bosch-Banyeras, J.M., Zuasnabar, A., Puig, A., Català, M., Cuatrecasas, J.M. J. Med. Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Distribution of the transcription factors Sox9, AP-2, and [delta]EF1 in adult murine articular and meniscal cartilage and growth plate. Davies, S.R., Sakano, S., Zhu, Y., Sandell, L.J. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. NF1 gene expression in mouse fracture healing and in experimental rat pseudarthrosis. Kuorilehto, T., Ekholm, E., Nissinen, M., Hietaniemi, K., Hiltunen, A., Paavolainen, P., Penttinen, R., Peltonen, J. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Rare dental abnormalities seen in oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome: three new cases and review of nine patients. Schulze, B.R., Horn, D., Kobelt, A., Tariverdian, G., Stellzig, A. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Delayed formation of proteoglycan aggregate structures in human articular cartilage disease states. Oegema, T.R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Misexpression of Hoxa-13 induces cartilage homeotic transformation and changes cell adhesiveness in chick limb buds. Yokouchi, Y., Nakazato, S., Yamamoto, M., Goto, Y., Kameda, T., Iba, H., Kuroiwa, A. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Studies of thrombin-induced proteoglycan release in the degradation of human and bovine cartilage. Furmaniak-Kazmierczak, E., Cooke, T.D., Manuel, R., Scudamore, A., Hoogendorn, H., Giles, A.R., Nesheim, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Studies of the articular cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan in health and osteoarthritis. Evidence for molecular heterogeneity and extensive molecular changes in disease. Rizkalla, G., Reiner, A., Bogoch, E., Poole, A.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunohistochemical detection and immunochemical analysis of type II collagen degradation in human normal, rheumatoid, and osteoarthritic articular cartilages and in explants of bovine articular cartilage cultured with interleukin 1. Dodge, G.R., Poole, A.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. MT1-MMP-dependent, apoptotic remodeling of unmineralized cartilage: a critical process in skeletal growth. Holmbeck, K., Bianco, P., Chrysovergis, K., Yamada, S., Birkedal-Hansen, H. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Hoxa-2 restricts the chondrogenic domain and inhibits bone formation during development of the branchial area. Kanzler, B., Kuschert, S.J., Liu, Y.H., Mallo, M. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. An essential role for Fgfs in endodermal pouch formation influences later craniofacial skeletal patterning. Crump, J.G., Maves, L., Lawson, N.D., Weinstein, B.M., Kimmel, C.B. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. AP2-dependent signals from the ectoderm regulate craniofacial development in the zebrafish embryo. Knight, R.D., Javidan, Y., Zhang, T., Nelson, S., Schilling, T.F. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Specification and morphogenesis of the zebrafish larval head skeleton. Kimmel, C.B., Miller, C.T., Moens, C.B. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Kniest dysplasia is characterized by an apparent abnormal processing of the C-propeptide of type II cartilage collagen resulting in imperfect fibril assembly. Poole, A.R., Pidoux, I., Reiner, A., Rosenberg, L., Hollister, D., Murray, L., Rimoin, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes corneal and skeletal keratan sulfate. Monoclonal antibodies to cartilage proteoglycan. Caterson, B., Christner, J.E., Baker, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Altered fine structures of corneal and skeletal keratan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in macular corneal dystrophy. Plaas, A.H., West, L.A., Thonar, E.J., Karcioglu, Z.A., Smith, C.J., Klintworth, G.K., Hascall, V.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Locally released retinoic acid repatterns the first branchial arch cartilages in vivo. Plant, M.R., MacDonald, M.E., Grad, L.I., Ritchie, S.J., Richman, J.M. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression and function of Gdf-5 during digit skeletogenesis in the embryonic chick leg bud. Merino, R., Macias, D., Gañan, Y., Economides, A.N., Wang, X., Wu, Q., Stahl, N., Sampath, K.T., Varona, P., Hurle, J.M. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of normal and tumoral cartilages of humans and rats. Mourão, P.A., Michelacci, Y.M., Toledo, O.M. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Articular cartilage in the degenerative arthropathy of hemochromatosis. Schumacher, H.R. Arthritis Rheum. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Human rheumatoid arthritic cartilage and its neutral proteoglycan-degrading proteases. The effects of antirheumatic drugs. Martel-Pelletier, J., Cloutier, J.M., Howell, D.S., Pelletier, J.P. Arthritis Rheum. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Doxycycline disrupts chondrocyte differentiation and inhibits cartilage matrix degradation. Cole, A.A., Chubinskaya, S., Luchene, L.J., Chlebek, K., Orth, M.W., Greenwald, R.A., Kuettner, K.E., Schmid, T.M. Arthritis Rheum. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Interleukin-1 induces pro-mineralizing activity of cartilage tissue transglutaminase and factor XIIIa. Johnson, K., Hashimoto, S., Lotz, M., Pritzker, K., Terkeltaub, R. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. A zebrafish sox9 gene required for cartilage morphogenesis. Yan, Y.L., Miller, C.T., Nissen, R.M., Singer, A., Liu, D., Kirn, A., Draper, B., Willoughby, J., Morcos, P.A., Amsterdam, A., Chung, B.C., Westerfield, M., Haffter, P., Hopkins, N., Kimmel, C., Postlethwait, J.H., Nissen, R. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. The zebrafish van gogh mutation disrupts tbx1, which is involved in the DiGeorge deletion syndrome in humans. Piotrowski, T., Ahn, D.G., Schilling, T.F., Nair, S., Ruvinsky, I., Geisler, R., Rauch, G.J., Haffter, P., Zon, L.I., Zhou, Y., Foott, H., Dawid, I.B., Ho, R.K. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Sox5 and Sox6 are required for notochord extracellular matrix sheath formation, notochord cell survival and development of the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs. Smits, P., Lefebvre, V. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Inflammation-induced chondrocyte hypertrophy is driven by receptor for advanced glycation end products. Cecil, D.L., Johnson, K., Rediske, J., Lotz, M., Schmidt, A.M., Terkeltaub, R. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene, CORS26, encoding a putative secretory protein and its possible involvement in skeletal development. Maeda, T., Abe, M., Kurisu, K., Jikko, A., Furukawa, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. A 26-year review of pectus deformity repairs, including simultaneous intracardiac repair. Willekes, C.L., Backer, C.L., Mavroudis, C. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. The effect of lactate and pH on proteoglycan and protein synthesis rates in the intervertebral disc. Ohshima, H., Urban, J.P. Spine. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Vascularization and cartilage mineralization of the thyroid cartilage of Munich minipigs and domestic pigs. Kimpel, M., Claassen, H., Fleiner, B., Tillmann, B. Anat. Embryol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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