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Gene Review

nmo  -  nemo

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG7892, Dmel\CG7892, NEMO, NEMO/NLK, NLK, ...
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High impact information on nmo

  • We show here that lit-1 encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase homolog related to the Drosophila tissue polarity protein Nemo [1].
  • Genetic mosaic analysis indicates that the nmo gene acts upon each cluster as a whole; normal nmo function in one or more photoreceptor cells appears to be sufficient to induce full rotation [2].
  • We have generated, by ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenesis, loss-of-function mutants in the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian I-kappa B kinase (IKK) complex component IKK gamma (also called NEMO) [3].
  • In addition, the activation of Wg-dependent gene expression is suppressed in wing discs ectopically expressing nmo and enhanced cell autonomously in nmo mutant clones [4].
  • This pattern is established during disc development, when clusters rotate through 90 degrees, a process dependent on planar cell polarity and rotation-specific factors such as Nemo and Scabrous [5].

Biological context of nmo

  • Nlk2 gene and Nlkp pseudogene, consisting of a single exon, were not evolutionarily conserved [6].
  • Rat Nlk2 gene and Nlkp pseudogene were mapped to rat chromosome 13p13 and 2q44, respectively [6].
  • This is the first report on the Nlk gene and retrotransposed Nlk homologs within the rat genome [6].
  • Nlk gene, consisting of 11 exons, was mapped to rat chromosome 10q25 [6].
  • Here, we identified and characterized rat Nlk gene, Nlk2 gene and Nlkp pseudogene by using bioinformatics [6].

Associations of nmo with chemical compounds

  • The nmo gene sequence encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase homolog, suggesting that the kinase is required to initiate the second step of rotation [2].

Regulatory relationships of nmo

  • Equator-outwards progression of elav expression and expression of the nemo gene in the morphogenetic furrow are regulated by frizzled, which itself is dynamically expressed about the morphogenetic furrow [7].
  • In cell culture, phosphorylation by Nemo blocks the nuclear accumulation of Mad by promoting export of Mad from the nucleus in a kinase-dependent manner [8].

Other interactions of nmo

  • Nemo is an inducible antagonist of Wingless signaling during Drosophila wing development [4].
  • Genetic analyses in the eye indicate that dTAK can also act through the p38 and Nemo kinases in imaginal discs [9].
  • Drosophila nemo was identified through its involvement in epithelial planar polarity, a process regulated by a non-canonical Wnt pathway [10].
  • Finally, we present genetic data from the adult wing that suggest the activity of ectopically expressed Nemo can be modulated by Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling [10].


  1. WRM-1 activates the LIT-1 protein kinase to transduce anterior/posterior polarity signals in C. elegans. Rocheleau, C.E., Yasuda, J., Shin, T.H., Lin, R., Sawa, H., Okano, H., Priess, J.R., Davis, R.J., Mello, C.C. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Rotation of photoreceptor clusters in the developing Drosophila eye requires the nemo gene. Choi, K.W., Benzer, S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune response. Rutschmann, S., Jung, A.C., Zhou, R., Silverman, N., Hoffmann, J.A., Ferrandon, D. Nat. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Nemo is an inducible antagonist of Wingless signaling during Drosophila wing development. Zeng, Y.A., Verheyen, E.M. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Egfr signalling defines a protective function for ommatidial orientation in the Drosophila eye. Brown, K.E., Freeman, M. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparative genomics on nemo-like kinase gene. Katoh, M., Katoh, M. Int. J. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. frizzled regulates mirror-symmetric pattern formation in the Drosophila eye. Zheng, L., Zhang, J., Carthew, R.W. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Drosophila Nemo antagonizes BMP signaling by phosphorylation of Mad and inhibition of its nuclear accumulation. Zeng, Y.A., Rahnama, M., Wang, S., Sosu-Sedzorme, W., Verheyen, E.M. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of the Drosophila TAK homologue dTAK during development. Mihaly, J., Kockel, L., Gaengel, K., Weber, U., Bohmann, D., Mlodzik, M. Mech. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Drosophila nemo is an essential gene involved in the regulation of programmed cell death. Mirkovic, I., Charish, K., Gorski, S.M., McKnight, K., Verheyen, E.M. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
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