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Gene Review

chrd  -  chordin

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: X-chordin, chd
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High impact information on LOC398045


Biological context of LOC398045

  • The results suggest that follistatin acts as an organizer factor in early amphibian embryogenesis by inhibiting BMP activities by a different mechanism from that used by chordin and noggin [4].
  • We show that, in contrast to Spemann organiser genes such as goosecoid, chordin and noggin, Siamois gene expression is not induced following overexpression of mesoderm inducers in ectodermal (animal cap) cells [5].

Anatomical context of LOC398045

  • This finding reveals an unexpected function for spadetail in midline mesoderm and in differential regulation of chordin expression during gastrulation [6].
  • The present results suggest an additional function for beta-Catenin, the early activation of expression of secreted BMP antagonists, such as Chordin, in a preorganizer region in the dorsal side of the Xenopus blastula [7].
  • When mesoderm involution was prevented in dorsal marginal-zone explants, the anterior neural tissue formed in ectoderm was derived from BCNE cells and had a complete requirement for Chd [8].
  • Injection of noggin or chordin RNA into animal pole blastomeres effectively inhibited VBI development, while marginal zone injection had no effect [9].
  • In contrast, XTcf4 has no repressive role but is required to activate expression of Xnr3 and chordin in organizer cells at the gastrula stage [10].

Associations of LOC398045 with chemical compounds

  • In addition, although dorsal mesodermal cells from lithium- or Wnt-exposed embryos are specified properly, and produce normal levels of the anterior neural inducing molecules noggin and chordin, they show a greatly reduced capacity to induce anterior neural tissue in conjugated ectoderm [11].
  • In a previous study, we demonstrated that FGFR1 activity within the organizer is required for the production of both the somitic muscle- and pronephros-patterning signals by the organizer and the expression of chordin, an organizer-specific secreted protein (Mitchell and Sheets [2001] Dev. Biol. 237:295-305) [12].

Enzymatic interactions of LOC398045


Regulatory relationships of LOC398045

  • Conversely, earlier in development, chordin can induce an ectopic primitive streak much more effectively than noggin, while neither BMP antagonist can induce neural tissue from extraembryonic epiblast [14].

Other interactions of LOC398045

  • Bmp4 knockdown was sufficient to rescue the ventralizing effects caused by loss of Chordin activity [15].
  • Surprisingly, dorsal signaling molecules such as Chordin, Noggin, Xnr6 and Cerberus were not re-expressed in these embryos [15].
  • In animal pole explants PV.1 counteracts the neuralizing effects of chordin and the DN-BR and restores them to their original epidermal fate [16].
  • In contrast, the expression of Wnt-8 and the homeobox gene Vent-1 is suppressed by G2en, whilst the organiser-secreted BMP antagonist chordin becomes ectopically expressed [17].
  • The ventral halves of axin-depleted embryos at the gastrula stage have dramatically increased levels of chordin expression, and severely decreased levels of Xwnt 8 mRNA expression, while BMP4 transcript levels are only slightly reduced [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC398045

  • Microinjection of chordin mRNA induces twinned axes and can completely rescue axial development in ventralized embryos [1].


  1. Xenopus chordin: a novel dorsalizing factor activated by organizer-specific homeobox genes. Sasai, Y., Lu, B., Steinbeisser, H., Geissert, D., Gont, L.K., De Robertis, E.M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Endoderm induction by the organizer-secreted factors chordin and noggin in Xenopus animal caps. Sasai, Y., Lu, B., Piccolo, S., De Robertis, E.M. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential regulation of neurogenesis by the two Xenopus GATA-1 genes. Xu, R.H., Kim, J., Taira, M., Lin, J.J., Zhang, C.H., Sredni, D., Evans, T., Kung, H.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Direct binding of follistatin to a complex of bone-morphogenetic protein and its receptor inhibits ventral and epidermal cell fates in early Xenopus embryo. Iemura, S., Yamamoto, T.S., Takagi, C., Uchiyama, H., Natsume, T., Shimasaki, S., Sugino, H., Ueno, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. The homeobox gene Siamois is a target of the Wnt dorsalisation pathway and triggers organiser activity in the absence of mesoderm. Carnac, G., Kodjabachian, L., Gurdon, J.B., Lemaire, P. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential regulation of chordin expression domains in mutant zebrafish. Miller-Bertoglio, V.E., Fisher, S., Sánchez, A., Mullins, M.C., Halpern, M.E. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Neural induction in the absence of mesoderm: beta-catenin-dependent expression of secreted BMP antagonists at the blastula stage in Xenopus. Wessely, O., Agius, E., Oelgeschläger, M., Pera, E.M., De Robertis, E.M. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Neural induction in Xenopus: requirement for ectodermal and endomesodermal signals via Chordin, Noggin, beta-Catenin, and Cerberus. Kuroda, H., Wessely, O., De Robertis, E.M. PLoS Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Spatial and temporal properties of ventral blood island induction in Xenopus laevis. Kumano, G., Belluzzi, L., Smith, W.C. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Maternal XTcf1 and XTcf4 have distinct roles in regulating Wnt target genes. Standley, H.J., Destrée, O., Kofron, M., Wylie, C., Heasman, J. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Xwnt-8 and lithium can act upon either dorsal mesodermal or neurectodermal cells to cause a loss of forebrain in Xenopus embryos. Fredieu, J.R., Cui, Y., Maier, D., Danilchik, M.V., Christian, J.L. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Chordin affects pronephros development in Xenopus embryos by anteriorizing presomitic mesoderm. Mitchell, T., Jones, E.A., Weeks, D.L., Sheets, M.D. Dev. Dyn. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Xolloid-related: a novel BMP1/Tolloid-related metalloprotease is expressed during early Xenopus development. Dale, L., Evans, W., Goodman, S.A. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Mesoderm patterning and somite formation during node regression: differential effects of chordin and noggin. Streit, A., Stern, C.D. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Depletion of Bmp2, Bmp4, Bmp7 and Spemann organizer signals induces massive brain formation in Xenopus embryos. Reversade, B., Kuroda, H., Lee, H., Mays, A., De Robertis, E.M. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. The homeobox gene PV.1 mediates specification of the prospective neural ectoderm in Xenopus embryos. Ault, K.T., Xu, R.H., Kung, H.F., Jamrich, M. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Suppression of GATA factor activity causes axis duplication in Xenopus. Sykes, T.G., Rodaway, A.R., Walmsley, M.E., Patient, R.K. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. The role of maternal axin in patterning the Xenopus embryo. Kofron, M., Klein, P., Zhang, F., Houston, D.W., Schaible, K., Wylie, C., Heasman, J. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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