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Gene Review

hoxd1  -  homeobox D1

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: Xhox.lab, Xhox.lab1, Xlab, Xlab-1, xhoxd1
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High impact information on HoxD1

  • In an expression screen for factors that pattern or induce ventral mesoderm, we isolated a complementary DNA encoding Mix.1, a paired class homeobox gene with no previously known function [1].
  • Like all known LIM class homeobox genes, Xlim-1 encodes a protein with two tandemly repeated cysteine-rich LIM domains upstream of the homeodomain [2].
  • Mixer, a homeobox gene required for endoderm development [3].
  • Mesodermal patterning by a gradient of the vertebrate homeobox gene goosecoid [4].
  • We have identified a novel homeobox gene, Xvent-1, that is differentially expressed in the ventral marginal zone of the early Xenopus gastrula [5].

Biological context of HoxD1


Anatomical context of HoxD1


Associations of HoxD1 with chemical compounds

  • HoxD1, an RA direct-target gene was also identified as an XMeis3 direct-target gene [10].

Other interactions of HoxD1

  • Here we examine the expression and regulation of the Xenopus labial homeodomain genes, HoxA1 and HoxD1 [9].
  • Xcad1 and Xcad2, two caudal-type homeobox genes, are expressed in a region with an anterior limit at this boundary and a posterior limit between the colon and proctodeum, therefore covering the whole of the small and large intestines [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HoxD1

  • Using the PCR, we discovered a repertoire of homeobox sequences expressed in these tissues [6].
  • Using in situ hybridization, we analyzed the expression pattern of the homeobox genes X-dll3 and Pax-6 within the developing olfactory system [13].


  1. BMP-4-responsive regulation of dorsal-ventral patterning by the homeobox protein Mix.1. Mead, P.E., Brivanlou, I.H., Kelley, C.M., Zon, L.I. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of the LIM class homeodomain protein Xlim-1 in neural and muscle induction by the Spemann organizer in Xenopus. Taira, M., Otani, H., Saint-Jeannet, J.P., Dawid, I.B. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Mixer, a homeobox gene required for endoderm development. Henry, G.L., Melton, D.A. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Mesodermal patterning by a gradient of the vertebrate homeobox gene goosecoid. Niehrs, C., Steinbeisser, H., De Robertis, E.M. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Antagonizing the Spemann organizer: role of the homeobox gene Xvent-1. Gawantka, V., Delius, H., Hirschfeld, K., Blumenstock, C., Niehrs, C. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Homeobox genes are expressed in the retina and brain of adult goldfish. Levine, E.M., Schechter, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Regional gene expression in the epithelia of the Xenopus tadpole gut. Chalmers, A.D., Slack, J.M., Beck, C.W. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of the LIM class homeobox gene Xlim-1 in pronephros and CNS cell lineages of Xenopus embryos is affected by retinoic acid and exogastrulation. Taira, M., Otani, H., Jamrich, M., Dawid, I.B. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of the Xenopus labial homeodomain genes, HoxA1 and HoxD1: activation by retinoids and peptide growth factors. Kolm, P.J., Sive, H.L. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. The Meis3 protein and retinoid signaling interact to pattern the Xenopus hindbrain. Dibner, C., Elias, S., Ofir, R., Souopgui, J., Kolm, P.J., Sive, H., Pieler, T., Frank, D. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Nodal signaling patterns the organizer. Gritsman, K., Talbot, W.S., Schier, A.F. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Xenopus hindbrain patterning requires retinoid signaling. Kolm, P.J., Apekin, V., Sive, H. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential and overlapping expression patterns of X-dll3 and Pax-6 genes suggest distinct roles in olfactory system development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Franco, M.D., Pape, M.P., Swiergiel, J.J., Burd, G.D. J. Exp. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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