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Gene Review

lhx1  -  LIM homeobox 1

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: lim-1, lim1, xlim-1
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Disease relevance of Xlim-1

  • The homeobox gene Xbh1 cooperates with proneural genes to specify ganglion cell fate within the Xenopus neural retina [1].

High impact information on Xlim-1


Biological context of Xlim-1


Anatomical context of Xlim-1


Associations of Xlim-1 with chemical compounds

  • Thus, Xlim-1 not only contains a unique tyrosine-rich activation domain but also contains a negative regulatory domain in CT239-403, suggesting a complex regulatory mechanism underlying the transcriptional activity of Xlim-1 in the organizer [8].
  • Induction of Xlim1, 1A11, and, partially, Xbrachyury transcripts in the marginal zone was blocked by cycloheximide treatment through late blastula stages, whereas Goosecoid and Xwnt8 mRNAs were expressed in the absence of protein synthesis, indicating that these sets of markers are activated in vivo through different pathways [9].

Regulatory relationships of Xlim-1

  • These data indicate that, in terms of neural inducing ability, Xlim-1/3m-expressing caps correspond to the head organizer and Xlim-1/3m plus Xbra-coexpressing caps to the trunk organizer [10].
  • Although XRnf12 functions as a E3 ubiquitin ligase for Ldb1 and causes proteasome-dependent degradation of Ldb1, we found that co-expression of a high level of Xlim-1 suppresses Ldb1 degradation by XRnf12 [11].

Other interactions of Xlim-1

  • Xlim-1, a LIM class homeobox gene expressed in Xenopus laevis, is one of the earliest known marker genes of pronephros development and is expressed in pronephros rudiment [12].
  • Thus the expression domains of Xlim-1 and Xbra correlate with, and possibly define, the functional domains of the organizer [10].
  • By seeking genes whose expression is activated by the organizer-specific LIM homeobox gene Xlim-1 in Xenopus animal caps, we isolated the receptor tyrosine kinase Xror2 [13].
  • Furthermore, neuralization elicited by noggin or 3m, a LIM domain mutant of Xlim-1, was substantially inhibited by co-injection of BMP4 mRNA [14].
  • These data suggest that XRnf12 confers proper Ldb1 protein levels and Xlim-1/Ldb1 stoichiometry for their functions in the organizer [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Xlim-1

  • Temporal expression of Xlim-1 in explants was analyzed in a series of induction assays using RT-PCR analysis [12].
  • We further examined the role of Xlim-1 using a series of microinjection experiments [12].
  • Presumptive pronephric anlagen of embryos were injected with various Xlim-1 mutants, and effects of these Xlim-1 mutants on pronephrogenesis in embryos and in explants were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry [12].
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Xlim-1, Siamois, and Mix.1 are likely to bind as a complex, in a LIM domain-dependent manner, to the region containing the 3xTAAT element [15].
  • Western blotting of embryo extracts injected with different Xlim-1 constructs confirmed the specificity of the antibody [16].


  1. The homeobox gene Xbh1 cooperates with proneural genes to specify ganglion cell fate within the Xenopus neural retina. Poggi, L., Vottari, T., Barsacchi, G., Wittbrodt, J., Vignali, R. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of the LIM class homeodomain protein Xlim-1 in neural and muscle induction by the Spemann organizer in Xenopus. Taira, M., Otani, H., Saint-Jeannet, J.P., Dawid, I.B. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. The LIM domain-containing homeo box gene Xlim-1 is expressed specifically in the organizer region of Xenopus gastrula embryos. Taira, M., Jamrich, M., Good, P.J., Dawid, I.B. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. RNA interference for the organizer-specific gene Xlim-1 in Xenopus embryos. Nakano, H., Amemiya, S., Shiokawa, K., Taira, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional regulation of the Xlim-1 gene by activin is mediated by an element in intron I. Rebbert, M.L., Dawid, I.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of the LIM class homeobox gene Xlim-1 in pronephros and CNS cell lineages of Xenopus embryos is affected by retinoic acid and exogastrulation. Taira, M., Otani, H., Jamrich, M., Dawid, I.B. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Xenopus Distal-less related homeobox genes are expressed in the developing forebrain and are induced by planar signals. Papalopulu, N., Kintner, C. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Functional domains of the LIM homeodomain protein Xlim-1 involved in negative regulation, transactivation, and axis formation in Xenopus embryos. Hiratani, I., Mochizuki, T., Tochimoto, N., Taira, M. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The pregastrula establishment of gene expression pattern in Xenopus embryos: requirements for local cell interactions and for protein synthesis. Sokol, S.Y. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Role of the Xlim-1 and Xbra genes in anteroposterior patterning of neural tissue by the head and trunk organizer. Taira, M., Saint-Jeannet, J.P., Dawid, I.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Selective degradation of excess Ldb1 by Rnf12/RLIM confers proper Ldb1 expression levels and Xlim-1/Ldb1 stoichiometry in Xenopus organizer functions. Hiratani, I., Yamamoto, N., Mochizuki, T., Ohmori, S.Y., Taira, M. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. A role for Xlim-1 in pronephros development in Xenopus laevis. Chan, T.C., Takahashi, S., Asashima, M. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. The Xenopus receptor tyrosine kinase Xror2 modulates morphogenetic movements of the axial mesoderm and neuroectoderm via Wnt signaling. Hikasa, H., Shibata, M., Hiratani, I., Taira, M. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. A dominant negative bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor causes neuralization in Xenopus ectoderm. Xu, R.H., Kim, J., Taira, M., Zhan, S., Sredni, D., Kung, H.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular link in the sequential induction of the Spemann organizer: direct activation of the cerberus gene by Xlim-1, Xotx2, Mix.1, and Siamois, immediately downstream from Nodal and Wnt signaling. Yamamoto, S., Hikasa, H., Ono, H., Taira, M. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. The LIM homeodomain protein Lim-1 is widely expressed in neural, neural crest and mesoderm derivatives in vertebrate development. Karavanov, A.A., Saint-Jeannet, J.P., Karavanova, I., Taira, M., Dawid, I.B. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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