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Gene Review

Aph-4  -  Alkaline phosphatase 4

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: AP, Aph, CG1462, Dmel\CG1462, aph-4, ...
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High impact information on Aph-4

  • Phosphorylation stimulated the DNA relaxation activity of topoisomerase II by 3-fold over that of the dephosphorylated enzyme, and the effects of modification could be reversed by treatment with alkaline phosphatase [1].
  • Such single-stranded DNA protein complexes have been tested for blot hybridization using two colorimetrically detectable enzymes, namely peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase, as the protein moiety of the probe [2].
  • Amphipathic enzymes, invertase (EC, 8-amylase (EC, and alkaline phosphatase (EC, were purified from the rat small intestinal mucosa as trypsin and Triton forms, the catalytic and regulatory characteristics of which were compared in rats and in drosophila [3].
  • The nearer encodes Aph-4, the first Drosophila alkaline phosphatase gene to be identified; the more distant gene [l(3)96601] is novel, with a head-elevated expression, and with distant similarity to transcription regulatory elements [4].
  • The promoter region of the liver/bone/ kidney-type alkaline phosphatase gene was examined to define the cis-acting regulatory sequences and transcription factors responsible for its expression in hematopoietic cells [5].

Biological context of Aph-4

  • Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes [6].
  • This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus [6].
  • A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times [6].
  • Furthermore, the activation of ATP hydrolysis was reversed following treatment of phosphorylated topoisomerase II with alkaline phosphatase [7].
  • The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism [6].

Anatomical context of Aph-4

  • The direct actions of Shh and Ihh on stimulation of osteoblast differentiation are evidenced by the findings that these factors stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in cultures of pluripotent mesenchymal cell line cells and osteoblastic cells and that these cells express putative receptors of hedgehog proteins [8].
  • On affinity blots the AP-SP probe binds to membrane proteins extracted from abdomen and head plus thorax, respectively [9].
  • A conserved domain of alkaline phosphatase expression in the Malpighian tubules of dipteran insects [10].

Associations of Aph-4 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Aph-4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aph-4


  1. Phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II by casein kinase II: modulation of eukaryotic topoisomerase II activity in vitro. Ackerman, P., Glover, C.V., Osheroff, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. A colorimetric method for DNA hybridization. Renz, M., Kurz, C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Catalytic and regulatory properties of the Triton and trypsin forms of the brush border hydrolases. Ugolev, A.M., Mityushova, N.M., Egorova, V.V., Gozite, I.K., Koltushkina, G.G. Gut (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. A novel Drosophila alkaline phosphatase specific to the ellipsoid body of the adult brain and the lower Malpighian (renal) tubule. Yang, M.Y., Wang, Z., MacPherson, M., Dow, J.A., Kaiser, K. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcription factor Sp3 activates the liver/bone/kidney-type alkaline phosphatase promoter in hematopoietic cells. Yusa, N., Watanabe, K., Yoshida, S., Shirafuji, N., Shimomura, S., Tani, K., Asano, S., Sato, N. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. Stalker, H.D. Genetics (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Protein kinase C modulates the catalytic activity of topoisomerase II by enhancing the rate of ATP hydrolysis: evidence for a common mechanism of regulation by phosphorylation. Corbett, A.H., Fernald, A.W., Osheroff, N. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Actions of hedgehog proteins on skeletal cells. Iwamoto, M., Enomoto-Iwamoto, M., Kurisu, K. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Sex-peptides bind to two molecularly different targets in Drosophila melanogaster females. Ding, Z., Haussmann, I., Ottiger, M., Kubli, E. J. Neurobiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. A conserved domain of alkaline phosphatase expression in the Malpighian tubules of dipteran insects. Cabrero, P., Pollock, V.P., Davies, S.A., Dow, J.A. J. Exp. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Spatiotemporal relationships between a novel Drosophila stripe expressing gene and known segmentation genes by simultaneous visualization of transcript patterns. Hartmann, C., Jäckle, H. Chromosoma (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Double-label in situ hybridization using biotin and digoxigenin-tagged RNA probes. O'Neill, J.W., Bier, E. BioTechniques (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular recognition properties of the C-terminal Sh3 domain of the Cbl associated protein, Cap. Kurakin, A., Hoffman, N.G., Kay, B.K. J. Pept. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Purification and characterization of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from the brain of Bombyx mori. Uno, T., Ueno, M., Kikuchi, M., Aizono, Y. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. One-, two-, and three-color whole-mount in situ hybridization to Drosophila embryos. Hauptmann, G. Methods (2001) [Pubmed]
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