The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Top2  -  Topoisomerase 2

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG10223, CHRAC, DNA topoisomerase 2, DNA topoisomerase II, Dmel\CG10223, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Top2

  • This similarity in cleavage site structure for Drosophila topoisomerase II and E. coli DNA gyrase suggests that they share some fundamental features in their mechanism of action [1].
  • We have isolated the gene coding for the Drosophila type II DNA topoisomerase by immunochemically screening a Drosophila cDNA library constructed with a phage lambda expression vector, lambda gt11 [2].
  • Alterations in this gene are reported in approximately 5-10% of acute leukemias (AL) and characterize different leukemic subtypes such as infant (< 12 months of age) AL, topoisomerase II inhibitors-related (TR) AL and a small subset of de novo AML and ALL [3].
  • In adult accessory glands as well as third instar larval neural ganglion and imaginal disk nuclei, DNA topoisomerase II shows areas of co-localization with chromatin adjacent to areas of extrachromosomal distribution [4].

High impact information on Top2


Biological context of Top2

  • The total histone mRNA was exclusively associated with DNA replication but, in contrast to top2 mRNA, mitotic and endoreplicating cells contained similar expression levels with no expression in the gonads [9].
  • During gastrulation, top2 mRNA became differentially localized only to regions of DNA replication, including new expression in the gonads preceding mitosis/meiosis [9].
  • Expression patterns for topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II during the embryogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster were compared with patterns of DNA replication and expression of the histone genes [9].
  • In late oogenesis the maternally supplied top2 mRNA was evenly distributed throughout the egg with elevated levels at the posterior tip, a pattern that is maintained in syncytial blastoderm embryos [9].
  • In addition, we have identified an unusual type of topoisomerase II binding site that is preferentially associated with the 5' ends of inactive hsp70 and actin genes, suggesting that this enzyme may facilitate changes in chromatin structure that are associated with repression of gene transcription [10].

Anatomical context of Top2


Associations of Top2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Top2


Regulatory relationships of Top2


Other interactions of Top2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Top2


  1. Double strand DNA cleavage by type II DNA topoisomerase from Drosophila melanogaster. Sander, M., Hsieh, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II. Nolan, J.M., Lee, M.P., Wyckoff, E., Hsieh, T.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. ALL1 gene alterations in acute leukemia: biological and clinical aspects. Cimino, G., Rapanotti, M.C., Sprovieri, T., Elia, L. Haematologica (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Intranuclear distribution of DNA topoisomerase II and chromatin. Meller, V.H., Fisher, P.A., Berrios, M. Chromosome Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Chromatid segregation at anaphase requires the barren product, a novel chromosome-associated protein that interacts with Topoisomerase II. Bhat, M.A., Philp, A.V., Glover, D.M., Bellen, H.J. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Multiple chromosomal populations of topoisomerase II detected in vivo by time-lapse, three-dimensional wide-field microscopy. Swedlow, J.R., Sedat, J.W., Agard, D.A. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. mei-W68 in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a Spo11 homolog: evidence that the mechanism for initiating meiotic recombination is conserved. McKim, K.S., Hayashi-Hagihara, A. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Greatwall kinase: a nuclear protein required for proper chromosome condensation and mitotic progression in Drosophila. Yu, J., Fleming, S.L., Williams, B., Williams, E.V., Li, Z., Somma, P., Rieder, C.L., Goldberg, M.L. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Developmental regulation of DNA-topoisomerases during Drosophila embryogenesis. Gemkow, M.J., Dichter, J., Arndt-Jovin, D.J. Exp. Cell Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Analysis of topoisomerase I and II cleavage sites on the Drosophila actin and Hsp70 heat shock genes. Kroeger, P.E., Rowe, T.C. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. In situ localization of DNA topoisomerase II, a major polypeptide component of the Drosophila nuclear matrix fraction. Berrios, M., Osheroff, N., Fisher, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Protein kinase C phosphorylates topoisomerase II: topoisomerase activation and its possible role in phorbol ester-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. Sahyoun, N., Wolf, M., Besterman, J., Hsieh, T., Sander, M., LeVine, H., Chang, K.J., Cuatrecasas, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, modifies DNA accessibility on damaged chromatin. Carrier, F., Georgel, P.T., Pourquier, P., Blake, M., Kontny, H.U., Antinore, M.J., Gariboldi, M., Myers, T.G., Weinstein, J.N., Pommier, Y., Fornace, A.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure and partial amino acid sequence of calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II: comparison with other type II enzymes. Austin, C.A., Barot, H.A., Margerrison, E.E., Turcatti, G., Wingfield, P., Hayes, M.V., Fisher, L.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of eukaryotic topoisomerase II by ultraviolet-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Corbett, A.H., Zechiedrich, E.L., Lloyd, R.S., Osheroff, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Topoisomerase II site-directed alkylation of DNA by psorospermin and its effect on topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. Kwok, Y., Hurley, L.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Analysis of a core domain in Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II. Targeting of an antitumor agent ICRF-159. Chang, S., Hu, T., Hsieh, T.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Functional dissection of DNA supercoiling factor: EF-hand domains and C-terminal HDEF motif are essential for its activity. Kobayashi, M., Hirose, S. Genes Cells (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation on the catalytic cycle of topoisomerase II. Regulation of enzyme activity by enhancement of ATP hydrolysis. Corbett, A.H., DeVore, R.F., Osheroff, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II by casein kinase II: modulation of eukaryotic topoisomerase II activity in vitro. Ackerman, P., Glover, C.V., Osheroff, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Drosophila CAP-D2 is required for condensin complex stability and resolution of sister chromatids. Savvidou, E., Cobbe, N., Steffensen, S., Cotterill, S., Heck, M.M. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. DNA supercoiling factor localizes to puffs on polytene chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster. Kobayashi, M., Aita, N., Hayashi, S., Okada, K., Ohta, T., Hirose, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Protein kinase C modulates the catalytic activity of topoisomerase II by enhancing the rate of ATP hydrolysis: evidence for a common mechanism of regulation by phosphorylation. Corbett, A.H., Fernald, A.W., Osheroff, N. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. During both interphase and mitosis, DNA topoisomerase II interacts with DNA as well as RNA through the protein's C-terminal domain. Rzepecki, R., Fisher, P.A. J. Cell. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. RNAi analysis reveals an unexpected role for topoisomerase II in chromosome arm congression to a metaphase plate. Chang, C.J., Goulding, S., Earnshaw, W.C., Carmena, M. J. Cell. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Single-molecule analysis of DNA uncoiling by a type II topoisomerase. Strick, T.R., Croquette, V., Bensimon, D. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Drosophila topoisomerase II-DNA interactions are affected by DNA structure. Howard, M.T., Lee, M.P., Hsieh, T.S., Griffith, J.D. J. Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities