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Gene Review

Pxd  -  Peroxidase

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG3477, Chorion peroxidase, DmPO, Dmel\CG3477, Dpxd, ...
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High impact information on Pxd

  • Defects were found in the median part of the central nervous system in whole-mount embryos stained with anti-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) antibodies [1].
  • Each 1512 residue chain of the three-armed, disulfide-linked homotrimer combines a peroxidase domain with six leucine-rich regions, four Ig loops, a thrombospondin/procollagen homology and an amphipathic alpha-helix [2].
  • We have previously reported a sensitive immunochemical method for detecting 5-methylcytosine in DNA which involves spotting DNA samples on nitrocellulose paper and detection of 5-methylcytosine, if any, by a combination of the double antibody method and a staining reaction brought about by biotin-avidin and peroxidase [3].
  • Antibodies specific for horseradish peroxidase (HRPeroxase) bind to neuronal membranes in Drosophila and serve as a specific neuronal marker [4].
  • The site of hybridization is then detected either fluorimetrically, by using fluorescein-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, or cytochemically, by using an anti-rabbit IgG antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase [5].

Biological context of Pxd


Anatomical context of Pxd

  • The immunolocalization approach, using the anti-rAePO polyclonal antibody, has revealed that the Pxd peroxidase is selectively localized in the chorion structures and particularly in the endochorion and innermost chorionic layer (ICL) [6].
  • Immunoelectron microscopy with peroxidase-labeled second antibody demonstrates that the varicosities are surrounded by a subsynaptic reticulum, that they contain immunoreactive vesicles of about 30-50 nm, and thus probably represent synaptic release sites [11].
  • As shown by mass spectrometric and chromatographic analyses, only the BG2-c6 cell line expresses alpha1,3/alpha1,6-difucosylated N-glycans, a result that correlates with anti-horseradish peroxidase binding [10].
  • Genetic dissection of endocytic trafficking in Drosophila using a horseradish peroxidase-bride of sevenless chimera: hook is required for normal maturation of multivesicular endosomes [12].
  • The cells in these cultures had the properties of neurons of the Drosophila CNS: They gave rise to ganglion-like clusters from which neurites extended on the culture substrate, and they expressed the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, and the cell surface antigens recognized by antisera raised against horseradish peroxidase [13].

Associations of Pxd with chemical compounds

  • Moreover, the mature form of the Pxd recombinant protein was specifically recognized by the anti-rAePO antibody as a 77 kDa band, while in the presence of H2O2 was able to convert tyrosine residues to di-tyrosine moieties [6].
  • Refeeding, topical application of juvenile hormone analogue to starved females or hormone addition to the culture medium, all caused the yolk spheres to become labelled with OZI and to incorporate peroxidase [14].
  • For many years, polyclonal antibodies raised against the plant glycoprotein horseradish peroxidase have been used to specifically stain the neural and male reproductive tissue of Drosophila melanogaster [15].
  • Both GST D1 and GST D21 have similar levels of GSH peroxidase activity against cumene hydroperoxide [16].
  • Here we report that N-glycan core alpha1,3-linked fucose is, as judged by preabsorption experiments, indispensable for recognition of Drosophila embryonic nervous system by anti-horseradish peroxidase antibody [15].

Regulatory relationships of Pxd


Other interactions of Pxd


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pxd


  1. A group of genes required for pattern formation in the ventral ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Mayer, U., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Peroxidasin: a novel enzyme-matrix protein of Drosophila development. Nelson, R.E., Fessler, L.I., Takagi, Y., Blumberg, B., Keene, D.R., Olson, P.F., Parker, C.G., Fessler, J.H. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Estimation of the amount of 5-methylcytosine in Drosophila melanogaster DNA by amplified ELISA and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Achwal, C.W., Ganguly, P., Chandra, H.S. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Antibodies to horseradish peroxidase as specific neuronal markers in Drosophila and in grasshopper embryos. Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunological method for mapping genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. Langer-Safer, P.R., Levine, M., Ward, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. The enzymatic component of Drosophila melanogaster chorion is the Pxd peroxidase. Konstandi, O.A., Papassideri, I.S., Stravopodis, D.J., Kenoutis, C.A., Hasan, Z., Katsorchis, T., Wever, R., Margaritis, L.H. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular characterization of a putative peroxidase gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Ng, S.W., Wiedemann, M., Kontermann, R., Petersen, G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. The dual role of chorion peroxidase in Bactrocera oleae chorion assembly. Konstandi, O.A., Papassideri, I.S., Stravopodis, D.J., Antonelou, M.H., Kenoutis, C.A., Stefanidou, D.C., Margaritis, L.H. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Integration of complex larval chemosensory organs into the adult nervous system of Drosophila. Gendre, N., Lüer, K., Friche, S., Grillenzoni, N., Ramaekers, A., Technau, G.M., Stocker, R.F. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Modulation of neural carbohydrate epitope expression in Drosophila melanogaster cells. Rendic, D., Linder, A., Paschinger, K., Borth, N., Wilson, I.B., Fabini, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Stereotypic morphology of glutamatergic synapses on identified muscle cells of Drosophila larvae. Johansen, J., Halpern, M.E., Johansen, K.M., Keshishian, H. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Genetic dissection of endocytic trafficking in Drosophila using a horseradish peroxidase-bride of sevenless chimera: hook is required for normal maturation of multivesicular endosomes. Sunio, A., Metcalf, A.B., Krämer, H. Mol. Biol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Differentiation of primary embryonic neuroblasts in purified neural cell cultures from Drosophila. Furst, A., Mahowald, A.P. Dev. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Ultrastructural analysis of Drosophila ovarian follicles differing in yolk polypeptide (yps) composition. Giorgi, F., Lucchesi, P., Morelli, A., Bownes, M. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of core alpha 1,3-fucosylated glycans and cloning of the requisite fucosyltransferase cDNA from Drosophila melanogaster. Potential basis of the neural anti-horseadish peroxidase epitope. Fabini, G., Freilinger, A., Altmann, F., Wilson, I.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Biochemical characterization of Drosophila glutathione S-transferases D1 and D21. Tang, A.H., Tu, C.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Null mutations in Drosophila N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I produce defects in locomotion and a reduced life span. Sarkar, M., Leventis, P.A., Silvescu, C.I., Reinhold, V.N., Schachter, H., Boulianne, G.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Functional domains and sub-cellular distribution of the Hedgehog transducing protein Smoothened in Drosophila. Nakano, Y., Nystedt, S., Shivdasani, A.A., Strutt, H., Thomas, C., Ingham, P.W. Mech. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Drosophila glutathione S-transferase D27: functional analysis of two consecutive tyrosines near the N-terminus. Lee, H.C., Tu, C.P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Graded requirement for the zygotic terminal gene, tailless, in the brain and tail region of the Drosophila embryo. Strecker, T.R., Merriam, J.R., Lengyel, J.A. Development (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. A colorimetric method for DNA hybridization. Renz, M., Kurz, C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Morphology of a sensory neuron in Drosophila is abnormal in memory mutants and changes during aging. Corfas, G., Dudai, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Methods for imaging labeled neurons together with neuropil features in Drosophila. Tyrer, N.M., Shepherd, D., Williams, D.W. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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