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Gene Review

Lk  -  Leucokinin

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG13480, DLK, Dmel\CG13480, Drm-KIN, LK, ...
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High impact information on Leucokinin

  • The deduced peptides were expressed, with a transgene for the calcium reporter aequorin, in S2 cells and only one gene (CG10626) encoded a protein that responded to Drosokinin [1].
  • Antibodies raised against the receptor identified known sites of leucokinin action: stellate cells of the Malpighian tubule, two triplets of cells in the pars intercerebralis of the adult central nervous system, and additional cells in larval central nervous system [1].
  • Rates of fluid secretion in tubules from c507 homozygotes are reduced, both basally, and after stimulation by CAP(2b), cAMP, or Drosophila leucokinin [2].
  • The activity of another diuretic agent, leucokinin, was similarly sensitive to osmolality, suggesting that the modulation occurs downstream of the tyramine receptor [3].
  • Other Leucokinin-containing neurons are not affected by mutations in ap gene [4].

Biological context of Leucokinin

  • Identification of the Anopheles gambiae leucokinin gene from the completed A. gambiae genome revealed that this insect species contains three leucokinin peptides, named Anopheles leucokinin I-III [5].

Anatomical context of Leucokinin


Associations of Leucokinin with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Leucokinin

  • Drosokinin-stimulated fluid transport is also reduced in homozygous and heteroallelic itpr mutants [8].

Other interactions of Leucokinin

  • Measurements of cytosolic calcium levels in intact tubules of wild-type and itpr mutants using targeted expression of the calcium reporter, aequorin, show that mutations in itpr attenuated both CAP(2b)- and Drosokinin-stimulated calcium responses [8].
  • These cells also express receptors for leucokinin, another major diuretic peptide, implying that the cells may be important in homeostatic regulation [9].
  • This is the first neuropeptide receptor known from the Acari and the second known in the subfamily of leucokinin-like peptide G-protein-coupled receptors [10].


  1. Systematic G-protein-coupled receptor analysis in Drosophila melanogaster identifies a leucokinin receptor with novel roles. Radford, J.C., Davies, S.A., Dow, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel Drosophila alkaline phosphatase specific to the ellipsoid body of the adult brain and the lower Malpighian (renal) tubule. Yang, M.Y., Wang, Z., MacPherson, M., Dow, J.A., Kaiser, K. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Modulation of tyramine signaling by osmolality in an insect secretory epithelium. Blumenthal, E.M. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Neurosecretory identity conferred by the apterous gene: lateral horn leucokinin neurons in Drosophila. Herrero, P., Magariños, M., Torroja, L., Canal, I. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Functional characterisation of the Anopheles leucokinins and their cognate G-protein coupled receptor. Radford, J.C., Terhzaz, S., Cabrero, P., Davies, S.A., Dow, J.A. J. Exp. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation and characterization of a leucokinin-like peptide of Drosophila melanogaster. Terhzaz, S., O'Connell, F.C., Pollock, V.P., Kean, L., Davies, S.A., Veenstra, J.A., Dow, J.A. J. Exp. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Separate control of anion and cation transport in malpighian tubules of Drosophila Melanogaster. O'Donnell, M.J., Dow, J.A., Huesmann, G.R., Tublitz, N.J., Maddrell, S.H. J. Exp. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. NorpA and itpr mutants reveal roles for phospholipase C and inositol (1,4,5)- trisphosphate receptor in Drosophila melanogaster renal function. Pollock, V.P., Radford, J.C., Pyne, S., Hasan, G., Dow, J.A., Davies, S.A. J. Exp. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The Dh gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a diuretic peptide that acts through cyclic AMP. Cabrero, P., Radford, J.C., Broderick, K.E., Costes, L., Veenstra, J.A., Spana, E.P., Davies, S.A., Dow, J.A. J. Exp. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and transcriptional expression of a leucokinin-like peptide receptor from the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Holmes, S.P., He, H., Chen, A.C., lvie, G.W., Pietrantonio, P.V. Insect Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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