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Gene Review

mol  -  moladietz

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 35Bb, B1, BG:DS01219.1, CG15268, CG4482, ...
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Disease relevance of mol

  • A 1250 bp portion of the mouse cDNA encoding all but the first 34 amino acids of the deduced protein sequence was inducibly expressed in Escherichia coli and gave rise to a prominent fusion protein of mol. wt approximately 45 kDa whose presence correlated with high levels of GlcNAc-TI activity in cell lysates [1].
  • The virus capsid contained three major polypeptides with mol. wt. of 31000, 30000 and 28000, and two minor components of mol. wt [2].
  • The mol. wt. of the virion was estimated to be approximately equal to 9.5 kd [3].
  • Ethanol at high concentration (1.3 mol/L) has been shown to activate the heat-shock response in hamster ovary fibroblasts, suggesting that this response might be an important consequence of exposure of cells to ethanol and might mediate some of its cellular toxicity [4].

High impact information on mol

  • Using NMR spectroscopy, we have determined the first ever three-dimensional structure of an ARID--DNA complex (mol. wt 25.7 kDa) formed by Dead ringer from Drosophila melanogaster [5].
  • Drosophila fibronectin with a subunit mol. wt of approximately 230 kd is a glycoprotein which binds to denatured mammalian collagen [6].
  • We predict the mol. wt of the Drosophila myb (D-myb) protein to be 74,000 [7].
  • Despite the complex transcriptional organization, the open reading frame is the same in all transcripts, and starts in exon 5 giving rise to a protein of mol. wt [8].
  • In using a monoclonal antibody against a major cytoplasmic protein of 46,000 mol wt, we have characterized an intermediate-sized (10 nm) filamentous cytoskeleton in Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture cells [9].

Biological context of mol

  • Some antibodies showed cross-reaction with 55,000 (vimentin) and 52,000 mol wt (desmin) proteins from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that form intermediate sized filaments in vertebrate cells [10].
  • The mitochondrial genome of Drosophila melanogaster is a circular DNA molecule of mol wt 12.35 X 10(6) daltons [11].
  • Pelle-DD is stable to urea denaturation with a folding free energy of 7.9 kcal/mol at 25 degrees C but is destabilized, with loss of urea binding sites, in the presence of MPD [12].
  • These Km differences indicate that in the enzyme binding site the stability of A-T base pairs is 4.3 kcal/mol greater than G-T pairs and 4.9 kcal/mol greater than C-T or T-T pairs [13].
  • As anticipated from its sequence, annexin XII was a high affinity substrate for purified rat brain PKC; half-maximal phosphorylation occurred below 0.1 microM annexin XII, and incorporation of up to 0.8 mol of phosphate/mol of annexin XII was observed [14].

Anatomical context of mol

  • Upon transient expression in HeLa cells, dSERT exhibited saturable, high-affinity, and sodium-dependent [3H]5HT uptake with estimated Km and Vmax values of approximately 500 nM and 5.2 x 10(-18) mol per cell per min, respectively [15].
  • In the absence of microtubules, the relative proportions of these two components varied with temperature, showing that the transition between them involves a large change in enthalpy (DeltaH degrees = -75 kJ/mol) [16].
  • SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the microsomes also revealed an increased content of a protein band with an apparent mol. wt of 54,000 in the resistant strains [17].
  • Moreover, the activation energy required for water transport in DRIP-expressing secretory vesicles was 4.9 kcal/mol [18].
  • Electrophysiological recording demonstrates that alpha-latrotoxin, a 125,000 mol. wt component of black widow spider venom, promotes high frequency quantal discharges at larval neuromuscular junctions of Drosophila [19].

Associations of mol with chemical compounds

  • The antigen for clone 28 was identified as a single protein of approximately 62,000 mol wt by using the antibodies followed by 125I-rabbit anti-mouse Ig to stain nitrocellulose replicas of SDS polyacrylamide gels of total chromosomal proteins [20].
  • About 0.85 mol of phosphate could be incorporated per mol of topoisomerase II, with phosphoserine as the only phospho amino acid produced [21].
  • The stoichiometry of tyrosine sulfation was approximately 1 mol of sulfate/mol of YP2 [22].
  • The kon velocity for ethanol and the ethanol competitive inhibitor pyrazole increased with pH and was regulated through the ionization of a single group in the binary enzyme-NAD(+) complex, with a DeltaHion value of 74(+/-4) kJ/mol (18(+/-1) kcal/mol) [23].
  • 45Ca2+ binding studies indicate that this protein binds 1 mol of Ca2+/mol of protein, with Kd 1.9 microM [24].

Other interactions of mol

  • DLK also acted to elevate intracellular [Ca(2+)] in the Malpighian tubules by approximately threefold, with an EC(50) of 10(-)(10) to 10(-)(9 )mol l(-)(1) [25].
  • The enzyme is a lysosomal DNase, because it is glycosylated and carries 1.8-2.4 mol of mannose-6-phosphate/mol of enzyme [26].
  • However, because of low values of the unfolding enthalpy for calmodulin domains, only relatively low values of <2 kcal/mol are implied for DeltaDeltaG, the free energy of destabilization due to mutation [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of mol

  • The same translation product of 599 amino acids (76.3 kd) is predicted for all mRNAs, but the in vitro translation product migrates in SDS-PAGE with a higher apparent mol. wt (115-125 kd) [28].
  • The purified wild-type and glutamate-204 mutant enzymes were found to contain nearly stoichiometric levels of zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the glutamate-162 mutant had a slight reduction in the level of zinc, and the glutamate-169 mutant retained less than 0.3 mol of zinc/mol of enzyme [29].
  • Determination of the analytes in spiked river water samples by use of the dmAChE biosensor resulted in recoveries from 50 to 90 % for chlorpyrifos oxon at levels of 20 to 40 nmol L(-1), 50 to 100 % for paraoxon at 0.6 to 0.8 micro mol L(-1), and 140 to 190 % for malaoxon at 0.6 to 1.2 micro mol L(-1) [30].


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  2. Characterization of the Drosophila C virus. Jousset, F.X., Bergoin, M., Revet, B. J. Gen. Virol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Queensland fruit fly virus, a probable member of the Picornaviridae. Bashiruddin, J.B., Martin, J.L., Reinganum, C. Arch. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. The heat-shock response in cultured cells exposed to ethanol and its metabolites. Walsh, K.H., Crabb, D.W. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. The structure of the Dead ringer-DNA complex reveals how AT-rich interaction domains (ARIDs) recognize DNA. Iwahara, J., Iwahara, M., Daughdrill, G.W., Ford, J., Clubb, R.T. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Drosophila fibronectin: a protein that shares properties similar to those of its mammalian homologue. Gratecos, D., Naidet, C., Astier, M., Thiery, J.P., Sémériva, M. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Drosophila and vertebrate myb proteins share two conserved regions, one of which functions as a DNA-binding domain. Peters, C.W., Sippel, A.E., Vingron, M., Klempnauer, K.H. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Structural organization and sequence of the homeotic gene Antennapedia of Drosophila melanogaster. Schneuwly, S., Kuroiwa, A., Baumgartner, P., Gehring, W.J. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Intermediate-sized filaments in Drosophila tissue culture cells. Walter, M.F., Biessmann, H. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Two Drosophila melanogaster proteins related to intermediate filament proteins of vertebrate cells. Falkner, F.G., Saumweber, H., Biessmann, H. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. A partial map of the circular mitochondrial genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Location of EcoRI-sensitive sites and the adenine-thymine-rich region. Wolstenholme, D.R., Fauron, C.M. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Cosolvent-induced transformation of a death domain tertiary structure. Xiao, T., Gardner, K.H., Sprang, S.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA polymerase insertion fidelity. Gel assay for site-specific kinetics. Boosalis, M.S., Petruska, J., Goodman, M.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of a novel annexin in Hydra vulgaris. Characterization, cDNA cloning, and protein kinase C phosphorylation of annexin XII. Schlaepfer, D.D., Fisher, D.A., Brandt, M.E., Bode, H.R., Jones, J.M., Haigler, H.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning, expression, and localization of a chloride-facilitated, cocaine-sensitive serotonin transporter from Drosophila melanogaster. Demchyshyn, L.L., Pristupa, Z.B., Sugamori, K.S., Barker, E.L., Blakely, R.D., Wolfgang, W.J., Forte, M.A., Niznik, H.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Binding of ncd to microtubules induces a conformational change near the junction of the motor domain with the neck. Naber, N., Cooke, R., Pate, E. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic variation in cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. Hällström, I., Blanck, A., Atuma, S. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Developmental expression and biophysical characterization of a Drosophila melanogaster aquaporin. Kaufmann, N., Mathai, J.C., Hill, W.G., Dow, J.A., Zeidel, M.L., Brodsky, J.L. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Electrical and optical monitoring of alpha-latrotoxin action at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Umbach, J.A., Grasso, A., Zurcher, S.D., Kornblum, H.I., Mastrogiacomo, A., Gundersen, C.B. Neuroscience (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Monoclonal antibodies against a specific nonhistone chromosomal protein of Drosophila associated with active genes. Howard, G.C., Abmayr, S.M., Shinefeld, L.A., Sato, V.L., Elgin, S.C. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Protein kinase C phosphorylates topoisomerase II: topoisomerase activation and its possible role in phorbol ester-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. Sahyoun, N., Wolf, M., Besterman, J., Hsieh, T., Sander, M., LeVine, H., Chang, K.J., Cuatrecasas, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression, tyrosine sulfation, and secretion of yolk protein 2 of Drosophila melanogaster in mouse fibroblasts. Friederich, E., Baeuerle, P.A., Garoff, H., Hovemann, B., Huttner, W.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. The catalytic triad in Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase: pH, temperature and molecular modelling studies. Winberg, J.O., Brendskag, M.K., Sylte, I., Lindstad, R.I., McKinley-McKee, J.S. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Purification and properties of a 23 kDa Ca2(+)-binding protein from Drosophila melanogaster. Kelly, L.E. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Isolation and characterization of a leucokinin-like peptide of Drosophila melanogaster. Terhzaz, S., O'Connell, F.C., Pollock, V.P., Kean, L., Davies, S.A., Veenstra, J.A., Dow, J.A. J. Exp. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Purification of a lysosomal DNase from Drosophila melanogaster. Gaszner, M., Udvardy, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. The role of beta-sheet interactions in domain stability, folding, and target recognition reactions of calmodulin. Browne, J.P., Strom, M., Martin, S.R., Bayley, P.M. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular analysis of ref(2)P, a Drosophila gene implicated in sigma rhabdovirus multiplication and necessary for male fertility. Dezelee, S., Bras, F., Contamine, D., Lopez-Ferber, M., Segretain, D., Teninges, D. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification of glutamate-169 as the third zinc-binding residue in proteinase III, a member of the family of insulin-degrading enzymes. Becker, A.B., Roth, R.A. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Flow-injection amperometric determination of pesticides on the basis of their inhibition of immobilized acetylcholinesterases of different origin. Jeanty, G., Wojciechowska, A., Marty, J.L., Trojanowicz, M. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
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