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Gene Review

PIDD1  -  p53-induced death domain protein 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DKFZp434D229, LRDD, Leucine-rich repeat and death domain-containing protein, MGC16925, PIDD, ...
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Disease relevance of LRDD

  • According to the results of the dark field microscopy, the % of spirochetes and motile rods in the periodontally diseased pockets was significantly higher in the PIDD than in the CIDD subjects (9.2 +/- 13.4% and 10.8 +/- 14.3% versus 4.0 +/- 5.2% and 3.1 +/- 3.2%, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, chi 2-test, respectively) [1].
  • Based upon their long-term medical records, 19 were identified as having poorly controlled (PIDD) and 10 as controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (CIDD) [2].

High impact information on LRDD

  • Upon genotoxic stress, a complex between PIDD, the kinase RIP1, and a component of the NF-kappaB-activating kinase complex, NEMO, is formed [3].
  • Previously, we reported a role for the p53-inducible death-domain-containing protein, PIDD, in caspase-2 activation and apoptosis in response to DNA damage [3].
  • This assumption was further supported by siRNA transfections targeting PIDD or RAIDD [4].
  • Upon intracellular processing, the C-terminal death domain-containing fragment of the p53-inducible PIDD/LRDD protein translocates to the nucleoli and interacts with nucleolin [5].
  • PIDD patients had elevated plasma cell levels relative to controls and they appeared also to have a decreased collagen fiber density [2].

Biological context of LRDD

  • PIDD mediates NF-kappaB activation in response to DNA damage [3].
  • Increased PIDD expression resulted in spontaneous activation of caspase-2 and sensitization to apoptosis by genotoxic stimuli [6].
  • Protein Inter-atomic Distance Distributions (PIDD) is a dedicated database and structural bio-informatics system for distance based protein modeling [7].

Anatomical context of LRDD


Associations of LRDD with chemical compounds

  • LRDD, a novel leucine rich repeat and death domain containing protein [8].
  • The PIDD subjects exhibited higher mean blood glucose levels (12.9 +/- 4.6 mmol/l, mean +/- S.D.) than the CIDD subjects (7.9 +/- 3.6 mmol/l) (p < 0.001, t-test) [1].

Physical interactions of LRDD

  • RAIDD has an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain (CARD) that interacts with the CARD of caspase-2 and a C-terminal death domain (DD) that interacts with the DD in PIDD [9].

Other interactions of LRDD

  • Interestingly, LRDD is shown to interact with two other death domain containing proteins, FADD and MADD, presumably through death domain interactions [8].
  • We show that activation of caspase-2 occurs in a complex that contains the death domain-containing protein PIDD, whose expression is induced by p53, and the adaptor protein RAIDD [6].
  • This translocation is mediated by or leads to the interaction of the PIDD death domain with nucleolin, a protein important for rRNA processing within nucleoli and possibly involved in the DNA damage response [5].


  1. Dark field microscopy of the subgingival microflora in insulin-dependent diabetics. Seppää, B., Ainamo, J. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Morphometric analysis of cellular and vascular changes in gingival connective tissue in long-term insulin-dependent diabetes. Seppälä, B., Sorsa, T., Ainamo, J. J. Periodontol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. PIDD mediates NF-kappaB activation in response to DNA damage. Janssens, S., Tinel, A., Lippens, S., Tschopp, J. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional connection between p53 and caspase-2 is essential for apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Vakifahmetoglu, H., Olsson, M., Orrenius, S., Zhivotovsky, B. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Upon intracellular processing, the C-terminal death domain-containing fragment of the p53-inducible PIDD/LRDD protein translocates to the nucleoli and interacts with nucleolin. Pick, R., Badura, S., B??sser, S., Z??rnig, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. The PIDDosome, a protein complex implicated in activation of caspase-2 in response to genotoxic stress. Tinel, A., Tschopp, J. Science (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. PIDD: database for Protein Inter-atomic Distance Distributions. Wu, D., Cui, F., Jernigan, R., Wu, Z. Nucleic Acids Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. LRDD, a novel leucine rich repeat and death domain containing protein. Telliez, J.B., Bean, K.M., Lin, L.L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Crystal structure of RAIDD death domain implicates potential mechanism of PIDDosome assembly. Park, H.H., Wu, H. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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