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Gene Review

Crx  -  cone-rod homeobox

Rattus norvegicus

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Disease relevance of Crx

  • METHODS: Crx and Otx2 were transferred into adult rat ciliary- and embryonic mesencephalon-derived neurospheres and adult rat iris-derived cells with the aid of a recombinant retrovirus [1].

High impact information on Crx

  • In addition, the Crx gene transfer induced the specific antigens for rod photoreceptors in the iris-derived cells, which was not seen in the adult hippocampus-derived neural stem cells [2].
  • These data suggest that Crx may play a crucial role in regulating pineal gene expression through interactions with PIRE [3].
  • RESULTS: Pax6 expression occurred in all proliferating retinal neuroblasts in vivo; however, after their last mitotic division, photoreceptors stopped expressing Pax6 and started expressing Crx [4].
  • Most postmitotic photoreceptors expressing Crx showed little axon development and few of them expressed opsin [4].
  • In vitro, photoreceptor progenitors also showed a switch from Pax6 to Crx expression immediately after they exited the cell cycle and started differentiation [4].

Biological context of Crx


Associations of Crx with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Crx

  • CONCLUSIONS: Crx and Otx2 effectively induced the generation of photoreceptor-specific phenotypes from ciliary- and iris-derived cells [1].
  • At least two additional key components of the phototransduction cascade, recoverin and Gdeltat1, were expressed by Crx- and Otx2-transfected iris-derived cells [1].
  • In primates, a combination of Crx and NeuroD was needed to induce monkey iris-derived cells to adopt photoreceptor-specific phenotypes [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Crx


  1. Otx2 homeobox gene induces photoreceptor-specific phenotypes in cells derived from adult iris and ciliary tissue. Akagi, T., Mandai, M., Ooto, S., Hirami, Y., Osakada, F., Kageyama, R., Yoshimura, N., Takahashi, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of photoreceptor-specific phenotypes in adult mammalian iris tissue. Haruta, M., Kosaka, M., Kanegae, Y., Saito, I., Inoue, T., Kageyama, R., Nishida, A., Honda, Y., Takahashi, M. Nat. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. A pineal regulatory element (PIRE) mediates transactivation by the pineal/retina-specific transcription factor CRX. Li, X., Chen, S., Wang, Q., Zack, D.J., Snyder, S.H., Borjigin, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Docosahexaenoic acid promotes photoreceptor differentiation without altering Crx expression. Garelli, A., Rotstein, N.P., Politi, L.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular cloning of the cone-rod homeobox gene (Crx) from the rat and its temporal expression pattern in the retina under a daily light-dark cycle. Sakamoto, K., Oishi, K., Okada, T., Onuma, Y., Yokoyama, K., Sugimoto, K., Ishida, N. Neurosci. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Transcriptional regulation of the chicken hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase gene by the cone-rod homeobox-containing protein. Bernard, M., Dinet, V., Voisin, P. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Iris-derived cells from adult rodents and primates adopt photoreceptor-specific phenotypes. Akagi, T., Akita, J., Haruta, M., Suzuki, T., Honda, Y., Inoue, T., Yoshiura, S., Kageyama, R., Yatsu, T., Yamada, M., Takahashi, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
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