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Gene Review

Rcvrn  -  recoverin

Rattus norvegicus

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Disease relevance of Rcvrn

  • In the present study, we sought to establish the origin and identity of the cells expressing recoverin in the ganglion cell layer of the rat retina [1].
  • In situ hybridization of cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells with a radioactive recoverin cDNA probe showed intense, specific labeling of the cytoplasm, indicating the presence of mRNA encoding recoverin [2].
  • These findings of the uveitopathogenic sites in recoverin may lead to improved understanding of the pathogenesis of uveitis and the means to design specific treatment [3].

High impact information on Rcvrn

  • Double-label immunofluorescence showed that, in the outer part of the IPL, 75% of the alpha 1-immunoreactive puncta were colocalized with recoverin-positive bipolar cell axons and 71% of the alpha 1-immunoreactive puncta were colocalized with parvalbumin-positive All-amacrine processes [4].
  • At least two additional key components of the phototransduction cascade, recoverin and Gdeltat1, were expressed by Crx- and Otx2-transfected iris-derived cells [5].
  • Recoverin, a calcium-binding protein that selectively localizes to the retina and pineal gland, has been identified as the target for the putative pathogenic autoimmune process of cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) [6].
  • Approximately 90% of the OFF-type bipolar cells, identified as recoverin-positive, showed GluR2 immunoreactivity [7].
  • Recoverin negative photoreceptor cells [8].

Biological context of Rcvrn


Anatomical context of Rcvrn


Associations of Rcvrn with chemical compounds

  • Recoverin is a calcium-binding protein that is thought to reverse the effects of light on cGMP levels by activating guanylate cyclase [2].
  • Some of these bipolar cell populations were labeled immunocytochemically in vertical and horizontal sections using antibodies against the calcium-binding protein recoverin, the glutamate transporter GLT-1, the alpha isoform of the protein kinase C, and the Purkinje cell marker L7 [14].
  • Rat brain was found, by immunoblot analysis, to have a protein of Mr 23,000 (P23k) that was clearly different from recoverin and was labeled with an antiserum raised against the NH2-terminus of recoverin [15].
  • To establish changes in phototransduction in diabetes, the effects of high glucose on rhodopsin kinase (RK) and transducin (G(t)), as well as recoverin, were examined in the retina of STZ-induced diabetic rats [16].
  • Here we report the ability of adult CD90+ marrow stromal cells (MSCs) to be induced by activin A, taurine, and EGF into cells (20-32%) expressing photoreceptor-specific markers rhodopsin, opsin, and recoverin in vitro [17].

Other interactions of Rcvrn

  • By double labeling with rhodopsin, we demonstrate that early in development some of the recoverin-positive cells in the ganglion cell layer are photoreceptors [1].
  • Synaptic connectivity of two types of recoverin-labeled cone bipolar cells and glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer of the rat retina [18].
  • Neurocalcin, a newly discovered calcium-binding protein belonging to the recoverin-like superfamily, was detected immunohistochemically in tufted cells from the rat olfactory bulb [19].
  • NCS-1 (neuronal calcium sensor) is a recently characterized member of a highly conserved neuron-specific family of calcium-binding proteins, which also includes frequenin and recoverin [20].
  • However, in contrast, arrestin expression in RCS PG was comparable with control PG and no expressions of recoverin and other G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs 2, 5 and 6) were detected in RCS PG during 3-5 weeks of age [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rcvrn

  • Analysis by SDS-PAGE of ROS proteins and by western blot using antibodies against opsin, rhodopsin kinase (RK), recoverin, or arrestin demonstrated that a 20-kDa protein and RK were selectively less abundant in RCS than in control rats [22].
  • The existence of recoverin-negative photoreceptors demonstrates that the recoverin gene can be regulated independently of other photoreceptor cell-specific proteins and suggests that this primary cell culture may be useful as a model system for investigating the illicit expression of the recoverin gene in cancer associated retinopathy [8].
  • Northern blot analysis revealed that rat recoverin mRNA expression was consistently high during the light period, then decreased after onset of darkness, and gradually increased later during the dark period [23].
  • Relative estimates of mRNA expression levels for M/L-opsin, S-opsin, recoverin, and rhodopsin in normal and cultured retina were determined by using quantitative RT-PCR [24].
  • Rod differentiation as determined by opsin and recoverin immunocytochemistry was effectively blocked by CNTF and leukemia inhibitory factor, but not by other neurotrophic agents tested [25].


  1. Ectopic photoreceptors and cone bipolar cells in the developing and mature retina. Günhan, E., van der List, D., Chalupa, L.M. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding recoverin from human retina. Wiechmann, A.F., Hammarback, J.A. Exp. Eye Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Uveitopathogenic sites in recoverin. Ohkoshi, M., Abe, T., Satoh, N., Nakajima, A., Sakuragi, S. Curr. Eye Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Glycinergic synapses in the rod pathway of the rat retina: cone bipolar cells express the alpha 1 subunit of the glycine receptor. Sassoè-Pognetto, M., Wässle, H., Grünert, U. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Otx2 homeobox gene induces photoreceptor-specific phenotypes in cells derived from adult iris and ciliary tissue. Akagi, T., Mandai, M., Ooto, S., Hirami, Y., Osakada, F., Kageyama, R., Yoshimura, N., Takahashi, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Recoverin is highly uveitogenic in Lewis rats. Gery, I., Chanaud, N.P., Anglade, E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit (GluR2) in ON-bipolar neurons in the rat retina. Kamphuis, W., Klooster, J., Dijk, F. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Recoverin negative photoreceptor cells. Cao, W., Chen, W., Elias, R., McGinnis, J.F. J. Neurosci. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Functional significance of recoverin localization in multiple retina cell types. McGinnis, J.F., Stepanik, P.L., Jariangprasert, S., Lerious, V. J. Neurosci. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. cDNA cloning of a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding protein. Kuno, T., Kajimoto, Y., Hashimoto, T., Mukai, H., Shirai, Y., Saheki, S., Tanaka, C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning of hippocalcin, a novel calcium-binding protein of the recoverin family exclusively expressed in hippocampus. Kobayashi, M., Takamatsu, K., Saitoh, S., Miura, M., Noguchi, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Segregation of on and off bipolar cell axonal arbors in the absence of retinal ganglion cells. Günhan-Agar, E., Kahn, D., Chalupa, L.M. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential distribution of six calcium-binding proteins in the rat olfactory epithelium during postnatal development and adulthood. Bastianelli, E., Polans, A.S., Hidaka, H., Pochet, R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunocytochemical identification of cone bipolar cells in the rat retina. Euler, T., Wässle, H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Isolation and characterization of recoverin-like Ca(2+)-binding protein from rat brain. Takamatsu, K., Kitamura, K., Noguchi, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Changes in rhodopsin kinase and transducin in the rat retina in early-stage diabetes. Kim, Y.H., Kim, Y.S., Noh, H.S., Kang, S.S., Cheon, E.W., Park, S.K., Lee, B.J., Choi, W.S., Cho, G.J. Exp. Eye Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Differentiation of marrow stromal cells into photoreceptors in the rat eye. Kicic, A., Shen, W.Y., Wilson, A.S., Constable, I.J., Robertson, T., Rakoczy, P.E. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Synaptic connectivity of two types of recoverin-labeled cone bipolar cells and glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer of the rat retina. Chun, M.H., Kim, I.B., Oh, S.J., Chung, J.W. Vis. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Neurocalcin immunoreactivity in rat olfactory bulb. Bastianelli, E., Okazaki, K., Hidaka, H., Pochet, R. Neurosci. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Cellular and subcellular distribution of the calcium-binding protein NCS-1 in the central nervous system of the rat. Martone, M.E., Edelmann, V.M., Ellisman, M.H., Nef, P. Cell Tissue Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Low expression of rhodopsin kinase in pineal gland in Royal College of Surgeons rat. Takano, Y., Ohguro, H., Ohguro, I., Yamazaki, H., Mamiya, K., Ishikawa, F., Nakazawa, M. Curr. Eye Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Low expression of alphaA-crystallins and rhodopsin kinase of photoreceptors in retinal dystrophy rat. Maeda, A., Ohguro, H., Maeda, T., Nakagawa, T., Kuroki, Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Diurnal expression of recoverin in the rat retina. Wiechmann, A.F., Sinacola, M.K. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Growth of the postnatal rat retina in vitro: quantitative RT-PCR analyses of mRNA expression for photoreceptor proteins. Liljekvist-Larsson, I., Törngren, M., Abrahamson, M., Johansson, K. Mol. Vis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Ciliary neurotrophic factor blocks rod photoreceptor differentiation from postmitotic precursor cells in vitro. Kirsch, M., Schulz-Key, S., Wiese, A., Fuhrmann, S., Hofmann, H. Cell Tissue Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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