The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Phototransduction


Psychiatry related information on Phototransduction


High impact information on Phototransduction


Chemical compound and disease context of Phototransduction


Biological context of Phototransduction


Anatomical context of Phototransduction


Associations of Phototransduction with chemical compounds

  • Calcium ions appear to have a role in this phototransduction process: they provide negative feedback between the conductance, which is permeable to Ca2+ (refs 4, 5), and the concentration of cGMP, which is sensitive to Ca2+ (refs 6-8) [22].
  • These results suggest the existence of a positive feedback loop at the cone output synapse: over most of the light-response range, glutamate released by depolarization of the cone will cause further depolarization, increasing the gain of phototransduction [23].
  • These results suggest a model for phototransduction, with implications for bacteriorhodopsin, photoactive proteins, PAS domains, and signalling proteins [24].
  • Changes in cyclic AMP following light exposure have been reported, leading to the suggestion that in cone phototransduction cAMP assumes a role analogous to that played by cGMP in rods [25].
  • Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins, calcium-calmodulin, cyclic guanosine 5'-phosphate, and the COP-DET-FUS class of master regulators are implicated as signaling intermediates in phototransduction [26].

Gene context of Phototransduction


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phototransduction


  1. The phosphatidylinositol transfer protein domain of Drosophila retinal degeneration B protein is essential for photoreceptor cell survival and recovery from light stimulation. Milligan, S.C., Alb, J.G., Elagina, R.B., Bankaitis, V.A., Hyde, D.R. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Melanopsin, ganglion-cell photoreceptors, and mammalian photoentrainment. Rollag, M.D., Berson, D.M., Provencio, I. J. Biol. Rhythms (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. No evidence for extraocular photoreceptors in the circadian system of the Syrian hamster. Yamazaki, S., Goto, M., Menaker, M. J. Biol. Rhythms (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Bilirubin, REM sleep, and phototransduction of environmental time cues. A hypothesis. Oren, D.A. Chronobiol. Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Calmodulin regulation of Drosophila light-activated channels and receptor function mediates termination of the light response in vivo. Scott, K., Sun, Y., Beckingham, K., Zuker, C.S. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. TRP: its role in phototransduction and store-operated Ca2+ entry. Friel, D.D. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa caused by mutations in the alpha subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase. Huang, S.H., Pittler, S.J., Huang, X., Oliveira, L., Berson, E.L., Dryja, T.P. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Cyclic GMP and calcium mediate phytochrome phototransduction. Bowler, C., Neuhaus, G., Yamagata, H., Chua, N.H. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Recessive mutations in the gene encoding the beta-subunit of rod phosphodiesterase in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. McLaughlin, M.E., Sandberg, M.A., Berson, E.L., Dryja, T.P. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Normal phototransduction in Drosophila photoreceptors lacking an InsP(3) receptor gene. Raghu, P., Colley, N.J., Webel, R., James, T., Hasan, G., Danin, M., Selinger, Z., Hardie, R.C. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. cDNA sequence and gene locus of the human retinal phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-C beta 4 (PLCB4). Alvarez, R.A., Ghalayini, A.J., Xu, P., Hardcastle, A., Bhattacharya, S., Rao, P.N., Pettenati, M.J., Anderson, R.E., Baehr, W. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Deactivation of visual transduction without guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis by G protein. Erickson, M.A., Robinson, P., Lisman, J. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Cellular regulation of RGS proteins: modulators and integrators of G protein signaling. Hollinger, S., Hepler, J.R. Pharmacol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Calmodulin regulation of calcium stores in phototransduction of Drosophila. Arnon, A., Cook, B., Montell, C., Selinger, Z., Minke, B. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Role of noncovalent binding of 11-cis-retinal to opsin in dark adaptation of rod and cone photoreceptors. Kefalov, V.J., Crouch, R.K., Cornwall, M.C. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Phorbol ester induces photoreceptor-specific degeneration in a Drosophila mutant. Minke, B., Rubinstein, C.T., Sahly, I., Bar-Nachum, S., Timberg, R., Selinger, Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Assembly of the Drosophila phototransduction cascade into a signalling complex shapes elementary responses. Scott, K., Zuker, C.S. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Rolling blackout, a newly identified PIP2-DAG pathway lipase required for Drosophila phototransduction. Huang, F.D., Matthies, H.J., Speese, S.D., Smith, M.A., Broadie, K. Nat. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Phototransduction in transgenic mice after targeted deletion of the rod transducin alpha -subunit. Calvert, P.D., Krasnoperova, N.V., Lyubarsky, A.L., Isayama, T., Nicoló, M., Kosaras, B., Wong, G., Gannon, K.S., Margolskee, R.F., Sidman, R.L., Pugh, E.N., Makino, C.L., Lem, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Transfected cGMP-dependent protein kinase suppresses calcium transients by inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. Ruth, P., Wang, G.X., Boekhoff, I., May, B., Pfeifer, A., Penner, R., Korth, M., Breer, H., Hofmann, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Protein kinase C activators inhibit the visual cascade in Limulus ventral photoreceptors at an early stage. Dabdoub, A., Payne, R. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Calcium and light adaptation in retinal rods and cones. Nakatani, K., Yau, K.W. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. A presynaptic action of glutamate at the cone output synapse. Sarantis, M., Everett, K., Attwell, D. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Structure at 0.85 A resolution of an early protein photocycle intermediate. Genick, U.K., Soltis, S.M., Kuhn, P., Canestrelli, I.L., Getzoff, E.D. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Cyclic GMP increases photocurrent and light sensitivity of retinal cones. Cobbs, W.H., Barkdoll, A.E., Pugh, E.N. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Phytochromes: photosensory perception and signal transduction. Quail, P.H., Boylan, M.T., Parks, B.M., Short, T.W., Xu, Y., Wagner, D. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Isolation of a putative phospholipase C gene of Drosophila, norpA, and its role in phototransduction. Bloomquist, B.T., Shortridge, R.D., Schneuwly, S., Perdew, M., Montell, C., Steller, H., Rubin, G., Pak, W.L. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. The ninaA gene required for visual transduction in Drosophila encodes a homologue of cyclosporin A-binding protein. Shieh, B.H., Stamnes, M.A., Seavello, S., Harris, G.L., Zuker, C.S. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Regulation of PLC-mediated signalling in vivo by CDP-diacylglycerol synthase. Wu, L., Niemeyer, B., Colley, N., Socolich, M., Zuker, C.S. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Photoreceptor deactivation and retinal degeneration mediated by a photoreceptor-specific protein kinase C. Smith, D.P., Ranganathan, R., Hardy, R.W., Marx, J., Tsuchida, T., Zuker, C.S. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Arabidopsis mutants define downstream branches in the phototransduction pathway. Li, H.M., Altschmied, L., Chory, J. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression profiling of the developing and mature Nrl-/- mouse retina: identification of retinal disease candidates and transcriptional regulatory targets of Nrl. Yoshida, S., Mears, A.J., Friedman, J.S., Carter, T., He, S., Oh, E., Jing, Y., Farjo, R., Fleury, G., Barlow, C., Hero, A.O., Swaroop, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. A novel Ggamma isolated from Drosophila constitutes a visual G protein gamma subunit of the fly compound eye. Schulz, S., Huber, A., Schwab, K., Paulsen, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Retinal vessel dilation following repletion of vitamin A deficiency. Larsen, M., Pedersen, R., Taarnhøj, N.C., Spits, Y., Munch, I.C., Leroy, B.P., Klemp, K. Exp. Eye Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities