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Gene Review

Serpind1  -  serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade D...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: HC-II, Hcf2, Heparin cofactor 2, Heparin cofactor II, Protease inhibitor leuserpin-2, ...
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Disease relevance of Serpind1


High impact information on Serpind1

  • Deposition of the fibrin matrix in hepatocyte cultures was arrested by hirudin, by specific heparin oligosaccharides that potentiate thrombin inhibition by antithrombin III, and by dermatan sulfate, an activator of heparin cofactor II-mediated inhibition of thrombin [3].
  • When the relative efficiency of cellular endocytosis of thrombin in complex with a number of inhibitors was examined, 125I-thrombin-PAI-1 complexes were most efficiently cleared compared to 125I-thrombin in complex with the serpins ATIII, HCII, alpha1-proteinase inhibitor, or d-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-arginine chloromethyl ketone [4].
  • Like heparin, they enhance thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin and/or heparin cofactor II [5].
  • An invertebrate dermatan sulfate containing 2-O-sulfated alpha-L-iduronic acid and 4-O-sulfated N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosamine residues is a potent anticoagulant due to a high heparin cofactor II activity [6].
  • It inhibits thrombin due to the formation of a covalent complex with heparin cofactor II, as in the case of mammalian dermatan sulfate, but the effect occurs at lower concentrations for the invertebrate polysaccharide [6].

Biological context of Serpind1


Anatomical context of Serpind1


Associations of Serpind1 with chemical compounds

  • These results support the hypothesis that the heparin-binding sites of glia-derived nexin, antithrombin III, and heparin cofactor II are found in homologous regions of the molecules [8].
  • These results show that the antithrombotic activity of naroparcil is dependent on modification in the plasma GAG profile which inactivates thrombin via the HCII [9].
  • Agents are formulated with the anionic glycosaminoglycan, 435-type dermatan sulfate (DS 435, 22.2 kDa), chemically enriched for oligosaccharide sequences that confer high heparin cofactor II binding and correlate with high tumor uptake [10].
  • The anticoagulant and possibly the antithrombotic actions of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate are mostly dependent on heparin cofactor II activity, and both are markedly reduced with the decrease of the chain size of the polymer [11].
  • 1. Vestibular putative neurotransmitters GABA and acetylcholine synthesizing enzymes were quantified in four vertebrate species to find a correlation between all-vertebrate vestibular hair cell II (HCII) and synaptic contacts and appearance of hair cell I (HCI) and related synapses in terrestrial species [12].

Other interactions of Serpind1

  • The results of these experiments indicated that the in vitro abilities of oversulfated fucoidan to stimulate tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-catalyzed plasminogen activation and to potentiate thrombin inhibition by antithrombin III or heparin cofactor II decreased with a decrease in its molecular size [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Serpind1

  • In addition, the fractionation of the plasma GAG extract by affinity chromatography on immobilized HCII led to a more potent material whereas the low-affinity fraction was shown to be inactive in thrombin inhibition by HCII [9].
  • In vitro bioassay showed maximum anti-Xa activity in the 4.2 kDa fraction and maximum heparin cofactor II-mediated anti-IIa activity in the 5.5 kDa fraction [14].


  1. Heparin cofactor II inhibits thrombus formation in a rat thrombosis model. Yamanaga, K., Yuuki, T., Tsukada, M., Koshiba, H., Nakajima, T., Takechi, K., Nakamura, N. Thromb. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of dermatan sulfate, a heparin cofactor II mediated thrombin inhibitor, on the endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation model in the rat: comparison with low-molecular weight heparin, nafamostat mesilate and argathroban. Onaya, J., Kyogashima, M., Sunose, A., Miyauchi, S., Mizuno, S., Horie, K. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Rat hepatocytes in serum-free primary culture elaborate an extensive extracellular matrix containing fibrin and fibronectin. Stamatoglou, S.C., Hughes, R.C., Lindahl, U. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and vitronectin promote the cellular clearance of thrombin by low density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 1 and 2. Stefansson, S., Lawrence, D.A., Argraves, W.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Dual effects of sulfated D-galactans from the red algae Botryocladia occidentalis preventing thrombosis and inducing platelet aggregation. Farias, W.R., Nazareth, R.A., Mourão, P.A. Thromb. Haemost. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Unbalanced effects of dermatan sulfates with different sulfation patterns on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. Vicente, C.P., Zancan, P., Peixoto, L.L., Alves-Sá, R., Araújo, F.S., Mourão, P.A., Pavão, M.S. Thromb. Haemost. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of temporal and spatial patterns of rat vestibular hair cell differentiation by tritiated thymidine radioautography. Sans, A., Chat, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Localization of the heparin-binding site of glia-derived nexin/protease nexin-1 by site-directed mutagenesis. Stone, S.R., Brown-Luedi, M.L., Rovelli, G., Guidolin, A., McGlynn, E., Monard, D. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Further studies on the mechanism for the antithrombotic effects of naroparcil, an orally active thiozyloside compound. Masson, P., Theveniaux, J., Coup, D., Grégoire, T., Vaillot, M., Dupouy, D., Sié, P., Boneu, B., Millet, J. Thromb. Haemost. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Dermatan carriers for neovascular transport targeting, deep tumor penetration and improved therapy. Ranney, D., Antich, P., Dadey, E., Mason, R., Kulkarni, P., Singh, O., Chen, H., Constantanescu, A., Parkey, R. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Different antithrombotic mechanisms among glycosaminoglycans revealed with a new fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from an echinoderm. Pacheco, R.G., Vicente, C.P., Zancan, P., Mourão, P.A. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative studies on glutamate decarboxylase and choline acetyltransferase activities in the vertebrate vestibule. López, I., Meza, G. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Preparation of oversulfated fucoidan fragments and evaluation of their antithrombotic activities. Soeda, S., Ohmagari, Y., Shimeno, H., Nagamatsu, A. Thromb. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Low molecular weight dermatan sulfate as an antithrombotic agent. Structure-activity relationship studies. Linhardt, R.J., Desai, U.R., Liu, J., Pervin, A., Hoppensteadt, D., Fareed, J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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