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Gene Review

PAL1  -  phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ATPAL1, CI0004, PHE ammonia lyase 1, T1J8.22, T1J8_22
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Disease relevance of PAL1


High impact information on PAL1


Biological context of PAL1


Associations of PAL1 with chemical compounds

  • However, the observed phenotypes were correlated with the amount of total shoot anthocyanin at low temperature and with the transcription of the flavonoid pathway genes PAL1 and CHS [13].
  • As anticipated, PAL activities with l-tyrosine were either low (AtPAL1, 2, and 4) or undetectable (AtPAL3), thereby establishing that l-Phe is the true physiological substrate [10].
  • Several characteristic defence reactions, including activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), expression of the pathogenesis-related protein PR-1 and the development of a microscopically defined hypersensitive response, proved to be light dependent [14].

Other interactions of PAL1


  1. Differential gene expression in nematode-induced feeding structures of transgenic plants harbouring promoter-gusA fusion constructs. Goddijn, O.J., Lindsey, K., van der Lee, F.M., Klap, J.C., Sijmons, P.C. Plant J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Exploring recombinant flavonoid biosynthesis in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Watts, K.T., Lee, P.C., Schmidt-Dannert, C. Chembiochem (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Phenylpropanoid compounds and disease resistance in transgenic tobacco with altered expression of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Shadle, G.L., Wesley, S.V., Korth, K.L., Chen, F., Lamb, C., Dixon, R.A. Phytochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular phenotyping of the pal1 and pal2 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals far-reaching consequences on phenylpropanoid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Rohde, A., Morreel, K., Ralph, J., Goeminne, G., Hostyn, V., De Rycke, R., Kushnir, S., Van Doorsselaere, J., Joseleau, J.P., Vuylsteke, M., Van Driessche, G., Van Beeumen, J., Messens, E., Boerjan, W. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Fumonisin B1-induced cell death in arabidopsis protoplasts requires jasmonate-, ethylene-, and salicylate-dependent signaling pathways. Asai, T., Stone, J.M., Heard, J.E., Kovtun, Y., Yorgey, P., Sheen, J., Ausubel, F.M. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Involvement of plasma membrane redox activity and calcium homeostasis in the UV-B and UV-A/blue light induction of gene expression in Arabidopsis. Long, J.C., Jenkins, G.I. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional properties of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase promoter from Arabidopsis. Ohl, S., Hedrick, S.A., Chory, J., Lamb, C.J. Plant Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in disease resistance in tobacco. Yang, K.Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Wanner, L.A., Li, G., Ware, D., Somssich, I.E., Davis, K.R. Plant Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. The Arabidopsis phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene family: kinetic characterization of the four PAL isoforms. Cochrane, F.C., Davin, L.B., Lewis, N.G. Phytochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Arabidopsis local resistance to Botrytis cinerea involves salicylic acid and camalexin and requires EDS4 and PAD2, but not SID2, EDS5 or PAD4. Ferrari, S., Plotnikova, J.M., De Lorenzo, G., Ausubel, F.M. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular identification of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase as a substrate of a specific constitutively active Arabidopsis CDPK expressed in maize protoplasts. Cheng, S.H., Sheen, J., Gerrish, C., Bolwell, G.P. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. The alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria is involved in the acclimation of shoot growth at low temperature. A study of Arabidopsis AOX1a transgenic plants. Fiorani, F., Umbach, A.L., Siedow, J.N. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Light conditions influence specific defence responses in incompatible plant-pathogen interactions: uncoupling systemic resistance from salicylic acid and PR-1 accumulation. Zeier, J., Pink, B., Mueller, M.J., Berger, S. Planta (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Isolation of a cDNA and a genomic clone encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from Arabidopsis and its expression manner in planta. Mizutani, M., Ohta, D., Sato, R. Plant Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Suppressed phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity after heat shock in transgenic Nicotiana plumbaginifolia containing an Arabidopsis HSP18.2-parsley PAL2 chimera gene. Moriwaki, M., Yamakawa, T., Washino, T., Kodama, T., Igarashi, Y. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (1999) [Pubmed]
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