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Gene Review

TT4  -  chalcone synthase

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of CHS


High impact information on CHS


Biological context of CHS

  • This activation of the CHS promoter required an intact MRE and a newly identified sequence designated R response element (RREAtCHS) containing the BHLH factor consensus binding site CANNTG [7].
  • The protein sequence deduced from the A. thaliana CHS DNA sequence is at least 85% homologous to the CHS sequences from P. hortense, Antirrhinum majus, and Petunia hybrida [8].
  • Anthocyanin accumulation and changes in CHS and PR-5 gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after removal of the inflorescence stem (decapitation) [1].
  • The UV-B and UV-A/blue light signaling pathways are therefore different from the phytochrome signal transduction pathway regulating CHS expression in other species [9].
  • Both the UV-B and UV-A/blue phototransduction processes involve calcium, although the elevation of cytosolic calcium is insufficient on its own to stimulate CHS expression [9].

Anatomical context of CHS

  • Co-localization of CHS and CHI was observed at the endoplasmic reticulum and tonoplast in these cells, and also in electron-dense regions that are, as yet, unidentified [10].
  • However, localization of CHS and CHI to the ER and tonoplast did not appear to be affected, suggesting that other proteins may function in recruiting the "soluble" flavonoid enzymes to membranes [10].
  • The protoplasts responded similarly to A. thaliana leaf tissue in light-dependent CHS transcript accumulation [11].

Associations of CHS with chemical compounds

  • Staining of flavonoid endproducts with DPBA was consistent with expression of CHS and CHI in these seedlings [10].
  • C1 and Sn, a R2R3-MYB and a BHLH factor, respectively, known to control tissue specific anthocyanin biosynthesis in Z. mays, were together able to activate the AtCHS promoter [7].
  • Affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated interactions between chalcone synthase, CHI, and flavonol 3-hydroxylase in lysates from Arabidopsis seedlings [12].
  • Expression of other molecular markers such as CHS (encoding chalcone synthase), MEB5.2 [encoding a gene strongly up-regulated by ultraviolet-B (UV-B)] and PYROA [encoding a pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) biosynthesis enzyme] only showed slight differences between ecotypes [13].
  • Analysis of gene expression in etiolated seedlings exposed to white light and in two putative regulatory mutants, ttg and tt8, demonstrated that the Arabidopsis F3H gene is coordinately expressed with chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerases is seedlings, whereas dihydroflavonol reductase expression is controlled by distinct regulatory mechanisms [14].

Physical interactions of CHS

  • The KAP-2 protein that binds to the H-box (CCTACC) element in the bean CHS15 chalcone synthase promoter was purified, and internal peptide sequence used to design primers leading to the cloning of KAP-2 from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) [15].

Regulatory relationships of CHS


Other interactions of CHS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHS


  1. Anthocyanin accumulation and changes in CHS and PR-5 gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after removal of the inflorescence stem (decapitation). Li, S., Strid, A. Plant Physiol. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. A CACGTG motif of the Antirrhinum majus chalcone synthase promoter is recognized by an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein. Staiger, D., Kaulen, H., Schell, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Arabidopsis SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 contains SPX and EXS domains and acts in cryptochrome signaling. Kang, X., Ni, M. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. HYPERSENSITIVE TO RED AND BLUE 1, a ZZ-type zinc finger protein, regulates phytochrome B-mediated red and cryptochrome-mediated blue light responses. Kang, X., Chong, J., Ni, M. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Involvement of plasma membrane redox activity and calcium homeostasis in the UV-B and UV-A/blue light induction of gene expression in Arabidopsis. Long, J.C., Jenkins, G.I. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. UV-B, UV-A, and blue light signal transduction pathways interact synergistically to regulate chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis. Fuglevand, G., Jackson, J.A., Jenkins, G.I. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential combinatorial interactions of cis-acting elements recognized by R2R3-MYB, BZIP, and BHLH factors control light-responsive and tissue-specific activation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis genes. Hartmann, U., Sagasser, M., Mehrtens, F., Stracke, R., Weisshaar, B. Plant Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Transcriptional regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana chalcone synthase gene. Feinbaum, R.L., Ausubel, F.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Distinct UV-B and UV-A/blue light signal transduction pathways induce chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. Christie, J.M., Jenkins, G.I. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Localization of flavonoid enzymes in Arabidopsis roots. Saslowsky, D., Winkel-Shirley, B. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of UV/blue light-response elements in the Arabidopsis thaliana chalcone synthase promoter using a homologous protoplast transient expression system. Hartmann, U., Valentine, W.J., Christie, J.M., Hays, J., Jenkins, G.I., Weisshaar, B. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Interactions among enzymes of the Arabidopsis flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Burbulis, I.E., Winkel-Shirley, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Supplementary ultraviolet-B irradiation reveals differences in stress responses between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. Kalbina, I., Strid, A. Plant Cell Environ. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Analysis of flavanone 3-hydroxylase in Arabidopsis seedlings. Coordinate regulation with chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase. Pelletier, M.K., Shirley, B.W. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. KAP-2, a protein that binds to the H-box in a bean chalcone synthase promoter, is a novel plant transcription factor with sequence identity to the large subunit of human Ku autoantigen. Lindsay, W.P., McAlister, F.M., Zhu, Q., He, X.Z., Dröge-Laser, W., Hedrick, S., Doerner, P., Lamb, C., Dixon, R.A. Plant Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation and gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with constitutive expression of ATL2, an early elicitor-response RING-H2 zinc-finger gene. Serrano, M., Guzmán, P. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Interactions within a network of phytochrome, cryptochrome and UV-B phototransduction pathways regulate chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis leaf tissue. Wade, H.K., Bibikova, T.N., Valentine, W.J., Jenkins, G.I. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Anion channels and the stimulation of anthocyanin accumulation by blue light in Arabidopsis seedlings. Noh, B., Spalding, E.P. Plant Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Over-expression of a flower-specific transcription factor gene AtMYB24 causes aberrant anther development. Yang, X.Y., Li, J.G., Pei, M., Gu, H., Chen, Z.L., Qu, L.J. Plant Cell Rep. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis. Brown, D.E., Rashotte, A.M., Murphy, A.S., Normanly, J., Tague, B.W., Peer, W.A., Taiz, L., Muday, G.K. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. The alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria is involved in the acclimation of shoot growth at low temperature. A study of Arabidopsis AOX1a transgenic plants. Fiorani, F., Umbach, A.L., Siedow, J.N. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Functional analysis of yeast-derived phytochrome A and B phycocyanobilin adducts. Kunkel, T., Neuhaus, G., Batschauer, A., Chua, N.H., Schäfer, E. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of an anther-specific chalcone synthase-like gene is correlated with uninucleate microspore development in Nicotiana sylvestris. Atanassov, I., Russinova, E., Antonov, L., Atanassov, A. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. High intensity and blue light regulated expression of chimeric chalcone synthase genes in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Feinbaum, R.L., Storz, G., Ausubel, F.M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
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