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Gene Review

EDS16  -  Isochorismate synthase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ICS1


High impact information on ICS1

  • We developed a software package called InterMap and used it to automatically delimit Eds16 to a 7-cM interval on chromosome 1 [2].
  • Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant defence [1].
  • Here we show, by cloning and characterizing an Arabidopsis defence-related gene (SID2) defined by mutation, that SA is synthesized from chorismate by means of ICS, and that SA made by this pathway is required for LAR and SAR responses [1].
  • This systemic up-regulation is missing in the SAR-defective SA pathway mutants sid2 and npr1, as well as in the defense mutant ndr1, indicating a close correlation between systemic FMO1 expression and SAR establishment [3].
  • Double-mutant analysis revealed that edr2-mediated resistance is suppressed by mutations that inhibit salicylic acid (SA)-induced defense signaling, including npr1, pad4 and sid2, demonstrating that edr2-mediated disease resistance is dependent on SA [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of ICS1


Biological context of ICS1


Associations of ICS1 with chemical compounds

  • These data indicate that local resistance to B. cinerea requires ethylene-, jasmonate-, and SA-mediated signaling, that the SA affecting this resistance does not require ICS1 and is likely synthesized via PAL, and that camalexin limits lesion development [6].
  • Growing fungal colonies of both Uromyces spp., indicative of a successful biotrophic relationship between plant and fungus, formed in NahG plants, but only U. vignae formed growing colonies in the sid2 mutants and cycloheximide-treated wild-type plants [8].
  • These results suggest that the ozone-induced expression of FAD7 gene requires SA, but not ethylene, JA, NPR1 and SID2 [9].
  • ISR was blocked in Arabidopsis mutants npr1-1, eds5/sid1, and sid2, indicating that components of the pathway from isochorismate and a functional NPR1 play a crucial role in the K165-mediated ISR [10].
  • AtICS1 acts as a monofunctional isochorismate synthase (ICS), catalyzing the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate (IC) in a reaction that operates near equilibrium (K(eq) = 0.89) [11].

Other interactions of ICS1

  • Furthermore, in the sid2 mutant which lacks an enzyme required for SA biosynthesis, the expression of FAD7 was induced by ozone exposure [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ICS1


  1. Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant defence. Wildermuth, M.C., Dewdney, J., Wu, G., Ausubel, F.M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Genome-wide mapping with biallelic markers in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cho, R.J., Mindrinos, M., Richards, D.R., Sapolsky, R.J., Anderson, M., Drenkard, E., Dewdney, J., Reuber, T.L., Stammers, M., Federspiel, N., Theologis, A., Yang, W.H., Hubbell, E., Au, M., Chung, E.Y., Lashkari, D., Lemieux, B., Dean, C., Lipshutz, R.J., Ausubel, F.M., Davis, R.W., Oefner, P.J. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The Arabidopsis flavin-dependent monooxygenase FMO1 is an essential component of biologically induced systemic acquired resistance. Mishina, T.E., Zeier, J. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of plant defense responses in Arabidopsis by EDR2, a PH and START domain-containing protein. Tang, D., Ade, J., Frye, C.A., Innes, R.W. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Manipulation of salicylate content in Arabidopsis thaliana by the expression of an engineered bacterial salicylate synthase. Mauch, F., Mauch-Mani, B., Gaille, C., Kull, B., Haas, D., Reimmann, C. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Arabidopsis local resistance to Botrytis cinerea involves salicylic acid and camalexin and requires EDS4 and PAD2, but not SID2, EDS5 or PAD4. Ferrari, S., Plotnikova, J.M., De Lorenzo, G., Ausubel, F.M. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of salicylic acid and fatty acid desaturation pathways in ssi2-mediated signaling. Kachroo, P., Venugopal, S.C., Navarre, D.A., Lapchyk, L., Kachroo, A. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. An investigation into the involvement of defense signaling pathways in components of the nonhost resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to rust fungi also reveals a model system for studying rust fungal compatibility. Mellersh, D.G., Heath, M.C. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Ozone-induced Expression of the Arabidopsis FAD7 Gene Requires Salicylic Acid, but not NPR1 and SID2. Yaeno, T., Saito, B., Katsuki, T., Iba, K. Plant Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Induction of resistance to Verticillium dahliae in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol agent K-165 and pathogenesis-related proteins gene expression. Tjamos, S.E., Flemetakis, E., Paplomatas, E.J., Katinakis, P. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Arabidopsis isochorismate synthase functional in pathogen-induced salicylate biosynthesis exhibits properties consistent with a role in diverse stress responses. Strawn, M.A., Marr, S.K., Inoue, K., Inada, N., Zubieta, C., Wildermuth, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Three unique mutants of Arabidopsis identify eds loci required for limiting growth of a biotrophic fungal pathogen. Dewdney, J., Reuber, T.L., Wildermuth, M.C., Devoto, A., Cui, J., Stutius, L.M., Drummond, E.P., Ausubel, F.M. Plant J. (2000) [Pubmed]
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