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Gene Review

TSL  -  serine/threonine-protein kinase TOUSLED

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: F22D1.100, F22D1_100, PROTEIN KINASE TSL, TOUSLED
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High impact information on TSL

  • Using a mutation derived by T-DNA insertion mutagenesis, we have cloned the TSL gene and found that it encodes a protein kinase homolog with a novel N-terminal domain [1].
  • Mutation at the TOUSLED locus of A. thaliana results in a complex phenotype, the most dramatic aspect of which being the abnormal flowers produced in mutant plants. tsl flowers show a random loss of floral organs, and organ development is impaired [1].
  • The Tousled (TSL) gene of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a serine/threonine kinase that is essential for proper flower development [2].
  • Mammalian homologues of the plant Tousled gene code for cell-cycle-regulated kinases with maximal activities linked to ongoing DNA replication [2].
  • TSL and LEUNIG most likely function in similar pathways during ovule development [3].

Biological context of TSL


Associations of TSL with chemical compounds

  • TSL trans-autophosphorylates on serine and threonine residues, and phosphorylates exogenous substrates [4].
  • Using the yeast two-hybrid system, TSL was found to oligomerize via its NH2-terminal domain [4].

Physical interactions of TSL

  • Double mutant analysis suggests that ETTIN interacts with TSL, possibly by restricting TSL expression to apical regions [3].

Other interactions of TSL

  • We have identified putative orthologues of CRC and TSL from A. trichopoda and C. aquatica, respectively [7].
  • This work has restriction mapped a 315 kb region that includes a number of genes implicated in floral development, namely PISTILLATA and TOUSLED, and a number of uncharacterized genes involved in male gametogenesis (e.g., Ms1 and Ms37) [8].


  1. The Tousled gene in A. thaliana encodes a protein kinase homolog that is required for leaf and flower development. Roe, J.L., Rivin, C.J., Sessions, R.A., Feldmann, K.A., Zambryski, P.C. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Mammalian homologues of the plant Tousled gene code for cell-cycle-regulated kinases with maximal activities linked to ongoing DNA replication. Silljé, H.H., Takahashi, K., Tanaka, K., Van Houwe, G., Nigg, E.A. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. TOUSLED participates in apical tissue formation during gynoecium development in Arabidopsis. Roe, J.L., Nemhauser, J.L., Zambryski, P.C. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. TOUSLED is a nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase that requires a coiled-coil region for oligomerization and catalytic activity. Roe, J.L., Durfee, T., Zupan, J.R., Repetti, P.P., McLean, B.G., Zambryski, P.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The protein kinase TOUSLED is required for maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis. Wang, Y., Liu, J., Xia, R., Wang, J., Shen, J., Cao, R., Hong, X., Zhu, J.K., Gong, Z. EMBO Rep. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of human Asf1 chromatin assembly factors as substrates of Tousled-like kinases. Silljé, H.H., Nigg, E.A. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence that CRABS CLAW and TOUSLED have conserved their roles in carpel development since the ancestor of the extant angiosperms. Fourquin, C., Vinauger-Douard, M., Fogliani, B., Dumas, C., Scutt, C.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Arabidopsis YAC restriction mapping. Morroll, S.M., Wilson, Z.A. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
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